PMM2 deficiency

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PMM2 protein

PMM2 deficiency or PMM2-CDG is a very rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in PMM2. It is an autosomal recessive disorder. A defective copy of the PMM2 gene is the most common cause of a disease called “congenital disorders of glycosylation” or “PMM2-CDG”. PMM2-CDG is the most common of a growing family of more than 100 extremely rare inherited metabolic disorders. Only about 1000 children and adults have been reported worldwide.

Other names[edit]

  • Carbohydrate-deficient Glycoprotein Syndrome (CDGS) Type Ia
  • Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation (CDG) Type Ia
  • Phosphomannomutase Deficiency[1]
  • Jaeken Syndrome
  • PMM2-CDG
  • CDG1a

Signs and symptoms[edit]

Diagnosis[edit]

PMM2 deficiency is diagnosed through genetic sequencing. More than 115 mutations in PMM2 gene have been found to cause this disease.[13]

Treatment[edit]

There is no cure for PMM2 deficiency. Treatment involves management of the symptoms that are apparent in each individual, including Physical Therapy to improve core strength and mobility, Occupational Therapy for coordination, Speech Therapy for talking and eating.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Matthijs G, Schollen E, Pardon E, Veiga-Da-Cunha M, Jaeken J, Cassiman JJ, Van Schaftingen E (May 1997). "Mutations in PMM2, a phosphomannomutase gene on chromosome 16p13, in carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein type I syndrome (Jaeken syndrome)". Nature Genetics. 16 (1): 88–92. doi:10.1038/ng0597-88. PMID 9140401.
  2. ^ Al-Maawali AA, Miller E, Schulze A, Yoon G, Blaser SI (February 2014). "Subcutaneous fat pads on body MRI--an early sign of congenital disorder of glycosylation PMM2-CDG (CDG1a)". Pediatric Radiology. 44 (2): 222–5. doi:10.1007/s00247-013-2782-2. PMID 24037084.
  3. ^ Izquierdo-Serra M, Martínez-Monseny AF, López L, Carrillo-García J, Edo A, Ortigoza-Escobar JD, et al. (February 2018). "Stroke-Like Episodes and Cerebellar Syndrome in Phosphomannomutase Deficiency (PMM2-CDG): Evidence for Hypoglycosylation-Driven Channelopathy". International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 19 (2). doi:10.3390/ijms19020619. PMID 29470411.
  4. ^ Serrano NL, De Diego V, Cuadras D, Martinez Monseny AF, Velázquez-Fragua R, López L, Felipe A, Gutiérrez-Solana LG, Macaya A, Pérez-Dueñas B, Serrano M (September 2017). "A quantitative assessment of the evolution of cerebellar syndrome in children with phosphomannomutase-deficiency (PMM2-CDG)". Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases. 12 (1): 155. doi:10.1186/s13023-017-0707-0. PMC 5602850. PMID 28915903.
  5. ^ de Diego V, Martínez-Monseny AF, Muchart J, Cuadras D, Montero R, Artuch R, Pérez-Cerdá C, Pérez B, Pérez-Dueñas B, Poretti A, Serrano M (September 2017). "Erratum to: Longitudinal volumetric and 2D assessment of cerebellar atrophy in a large cohort of children with phosphomannomutase deficiency (PMM2-CDG)". Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease. 40 (5): 753–754. doi:10.1007/s10545-017-0056-0. PMID 28600669.
  6. ^ Serrano M, de Diego V, Muchart J, Cuadras D, Felipe A, Macaya A, et al. (October 2015). "Phosphomannomutase deficiency (PMM2-CDG): ataxia and cerebellar assessment". Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases. 10: 138. doi:10.1186/s13023-015-0358-y. PMC 4623922. PMID 26502900.
  7. ^ Barone R, Fiumara A, Jaeken J (July 2014). "Congenital disorders of glycosylation with emphasis on cerebellar involvement". Seminars in Neurology. 34 (3): 357–66. doi:10.1055/s-0034-1387197. PMID 25192513.
  8. ^ Marques-da-Silva D, Dos Reis Ferreira V, Monticelli M, Janeiro P, Videira PA, Witters P, Jaeken J, Cassiman D (March 2017). "Liver involvement in congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). A systematic review of the literature". Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease. 40 (2): 195–207. doi:10.1007/s10545-016-0012-4. PMID 28108845.
  9. ^ Footitt EJ, Karimova A, Burch M, Yayeh T, Dupré T, Vuillaumier-Barrot S, Chantret I, Moore SE, Seta N, Grunewald S (December 2009). "Cardiomyopathy in the congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG): a case of late presentation and literature review". Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease. 32 Suppl 1: S313–9. doi:10.1007/s10545-009-1262-1. PMID 19757145.
  10. ^ a b Sparks SE, Krasnewich DM (1993). Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Pagon RA, Wallace SE, Bean LJ, Stephens K, Amemiya A, eds. GeneReviews®. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle. PMID 20301289.
  11. ^ a b Messenger WB, Yang P, Pennesi ME (April 2014). "Ophthalmic findings in an infant with phosphomannomutase deficiency". Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology. 128 (2): 149–53. doi:10.1007/s10633-014-9427-0. PMC 3990245. PMID 24493206.
  12. ^ Coorg R, Lotze TE (October 2012). "Child Neurology: a case of PMM2-CDG (CDG 1a) presenting with unusual eye movements". Neurology. 79 (15): e131–3. doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e31826e2617. PMID 23045520.
  13. ^ a b Reference, Genetics Home. "PMM2 gene". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 2018-03-12.