Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist–Leninist)
Communism in Nepal
Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist–Leninist), was an underground political party in Nepal. It was founded 1978 by the All Nepal Communist Revolutionary Coordination Committee (Marxist-Leninist). The founding congress was held December 26, 1978-January 1, 1979. The first general secretary of CPN(ML) was C.P. Mainali.
CPN(ML) was inspired by the Indian Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) (CPI(ML)). It was linked to the Vinod Mishra faction of CPI(ML), a group that was strong in Bihar (bordering Nepal). CPN(ML) conducted armed activities against the regime. CPN(ML) rapidly emerged as the main communist faction in the country.
CPN(ML) published Varg-Sangarsh (Class Struggle) and Mukti Morcha (Liberation Front).
In 1982 a major shift took place. The party abandoned the strategy of armed struggle and opted for mass democratic struggles instead. Mainali was deposed as general secretary, and Jhala Nath Khanal took over the helm.
In 1986 the process of reform of CPN(ML) accelerated further, with moderate Madan Bhandari elected general secretary.
In 1990 the party took part in the United Left Front and this led to CPN(ML) merged with Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist) to form Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist) in 1991.
During the course of its existence, the CPN(ML) grew through engulfing smaller communist factions by a series of mergers:
- July 1979: The Gandaki-based Marxist-Leninist Revolutionary Communist Party
- January 1980: 'Revolutionary Communists', grouping in the Arghakhanchi District
- 1980: Marxist-Leninist Study Group
- April 1980: Revolutionary Communist Organisation, Nepal
- November 1981: Communist Party of Nepal, Rebel Unity Centre
- December 1981: 'Revolutionaries', a Parbat District-based splinter group of the Nepal Workers and Peasants Organisation
- Barre Sangarsh Samuha
- April 1986: Nepal Workers and Peasants Organisation (D.P. Singh)
- K.C., Surendra. Aitihasik dastavej sangroh - bhag 2. Kathmandu: Pairavi Prakashan, 2063 B.S.. p 9.
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