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Incillius coniferus.jpg
Incilius coniferus is the type species of genus Incilius
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Bufonidae
Genus: Incilius
Cope, 1863
Type species
Bufo coniferus
Cope, 1862

Cranopsis Cope, 1875 "1876" (junior homonym of Cranopsis Adams, 1860 (Mollusca) and Cranopsis Dall, 1871 (Brachiopoda))
Ollotis Cope, 1875 "1876"
Crepidius Cope, 1875 "1876" (primary homonym of Crepidius Candeze, 1859 (Coleoptera))
Crepidophryne Cope, 1889 (replacement name for Crepidius)
Cranophryne Cope, 1889 (replacement name for Cranopsis)

Incilius is genus of toads in the true toad family, Bufonidae.[1][2][3] They are sometimes known as the Central American toads or Middle American toads and are found in southern USA, Mexico, Central America, and northern Pacific South America (Colombia and Ecuador).[1] They are an ecologically and biogeographically diverse group of toads, including micro-endemic species such as Incilius spiculatus that are restricted to undisturbed cloud forests, and widespread lowland species such as Incilius valliceps that predominantly occur in disturbed habitats.[4]

Taxonomy and systematics[edit]

Taxonomy and systematics of Incilius has seen many recent changes. Current delineation of the genus was achieved by 2011 when both Cranopsis/Ollotis and Crepidius/Crepidophryne had been brought into synonymy with Incilius. However, the monophyly of Incilius is threatened by Incilius bocourti, which might be the sister taxon of Anaxyrus.[1]

Another discussion has been the taxonomic level at which the genus is recognized. Incilius did not see wide recognition before the large-scale revision of amphibian systematics by Darrel Frost and colleagues in 2006,[5] then under the name Cranopsis, including the former "Bufo valliceps group" and some related species. However, others have argued that Incilius should be treated as a subgenus of Bufo,[6] a position that several researchers still maintain.[1]


There are at present 40 species:[1][2]


  1. ^ a b c d e Frost, Darrel R. (2015). "Incilius Cope, 1863". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 4 December 2015. 
  2. ^ a b "Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. 2015. Retrieved 4 December 2015. 
  3. ^ Vitt, Laurie J.; Caldwell, Janalee P. (2014). Herpetology: An Introductory Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles (4th ed.). Academic Press. p. 490. 
  4. ^ Mendelson, J. R., III, D. G. Mulcahy, T. S. Williams, and J. W. Sites, Jr. (2011). "A phylogeny and evolutionary natural history of mesoamerican toads (Anura: Bufonidae: Incilius) based on morphology, life history, and molecular data" (PDF). Zootaxa. 3138: 1–34. 
  5. ^ Frost, D. R.; Grant, T.; Faivovich, J. N.; Bain, R. H.; Haas, A.; Haddad, C. L. F. B.; De Sá, R. O.; Channing, A.; Wilkinson, M.; Donnellan, S. C.; Raxworthy, C. J.; Campbell, J. A.; Blotto, B. L.; Moler, P.; Drewes, R. C.; Nussbaum, R. A.; Lynch, J. D.; Green, D. M.; Wheeler, W. C. (2006). "The amphibian tree of life". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 297: 1–291. doi:10.1206/0003-0090(2006)297[0001:TATOL]2.0.CO;2. hdl:2246/5781. 
  6. ^ Pauly, Greg B.; Hillis, David M.; Cannatella, David C. (2009). "Taxonomic freedom and the role of official lists of species names" (PDF). Herpetologica. 65 (2): 115–128. doi:10.1655/08-031R1.1. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 26, 2011.