|Incilius coniferus is the type species of genus Incilius|
Cranopsis Cope, 1875 "1876" (junior homonym of Cranopsis Adams, 1860 (Mollusca) and Cranopsis Dall, 1871 (Brachiopoda))
Incilius is genus of toads in the true toad family, Bufonidae. They are sometimes known as the Central American toads or Middle American toads and are found in southern USA, Mexico, Central America, and northern Pacific South America (Colombia and Ecuador). They are an ecologically and biogeographically diverse group of toads, including micro-endemic species such as Incilius spiculatus that are restricted to undisturbed cloud forests, and widespread lowland species such as Incilius valliceps that predominantly occur in disturbed habitats.
Taxonomy and systematics
Taxonomy and systematics of Incilius has seen many recent changes. Current delineation of the genus was achieved by 2011 when both Cranopsis/Ollotis and Crepidius/Crepidophryne had been brought into synonymy with Incilius. However, the monophyly of Incilius is threatened by Incilius bocourti, which might be the sister taxon of Anaxyrus.
Another discussion has been the taxonomic level at which the genus is recognized. Incilius did not see wide recognition before the large-scale revision of amphibian systematics by Darrel Frost and colleagues in 2006, then under the name Cranopsis, including the former "Bufo valliceps group" and some related species. However, others have argued that Incilius should be treated as a subgenus of Bufo, a position that several researchers still maintain.
- Incilius alvarius (Girard, 1859)
- Incilius aucoinae (O'Neill and Mendelson, 2004)
- Incilius aurarius Mendelson, Mulcahy, Snell, Acevedo, and Campbell, 2012
- Incilius bocourti (Brocchi, 1877)
- Incilius campbelli (Mendelson, 1994)
- Incilius canaliferus (Cope, 1877)
- Incilius cavifrons (Firschein, 1950)
- Incilius chompipe (Vaughan and Mendelson, 2007)
- Incilius coccifer (Cope, 1866)
- Incilius coniferus (Cope, 1862)
- Incilius cristatus (Wiegmann, 1833)
- Incilius cycladen (Lynch and Smith, 1966)
- Incilius epioticus (Cope, 1875)
- Incilius fastidiosus (Cope, 1875)
- Incilius gemmifer (Taylor, 1940)
- Incilius guanacaste (Vaughan and Mendelson, 2007)
- Incilius holdridgei (Taylor, 1952)
- Incilius ibarrai (Stuart, 1954)
- Incilius intermedius (Günther, 1858)
- Incilius karenlipsae Mendelson and Mulcahy, 2010
- Incilius leucomyos (McCranie and Wilson, 2000)
- Incilius luetkenii (Boulenger, 1891)
- Incilius macrocristatus (Firschein and Smith, 1957)
- Incilius majordomus Savage, Ugarte, and Donnelly, 2013
- Incilius marmoreus (Wiegmann, 1833)
- Incilius mazatlanensis (Taylor, 1940)
- Incilius mccoyi Santos-Barrera and Flores-Villela, 2011
- Incilius melanochlorus (Cope, 1877)
- Incilius nebulifer (Girard, 1854)
- Incilius occidentalis (Camerano, 1879)
- †Incilius periglenes (Savage, 1967)
- Incilius peripatetes (Savage, 1972)
- Incilius perplexus (Taylor, 1943)
- Incilius pisinnus (Mendelson, Williams, Sheil, and Mulcahy, 2005)
- Incilius porteri (Mendelson, Williams, Sheil, and Mulcahy, 2005)
- Incilius signifer (Mendelson, Williams, Sheil, and Mulcahy, 2005)
- Incilius spiculatus (Mendelson, 1997)
- Incilius tacanensis (Smith, 1952)
- Incilius tutelarius (Mendelson, 1997)
- Incilius valliceps (Wiegmann, 1833)
- Frost, Darrel R. (2015). "Incilius Cope, 1863". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
- "Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. 2015. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
- Vitt, Laurie J.; Caldwell, Janalee P. (2014). Herpetology: An Introductory Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles (4th ed.). Academic Press. p. 490.
- Mendelson, J. R., III, D. G. Mulcahy, T. S. Williams, and J. W. Sites, Jr. (2011). "A phylogeny and evolutionary natural history of mesoamerican toads (Anura: Bufonidae: Incilius) based on morphology, life history, and molecular data" (PDF). Zootaxa. 3138: 1–34.
- Frost, D. R.; Grant, T.; Faivovich, J. N.; Bain, R. H.; Haas, A.; Haddad, C. L. F. B.; De Sá, R. O.; Channing, A.; Wilkinson, M.; Donnellan, S. C.; Raxworthy, C. J.; Campbell, J. A.; Blotto, B. L.; Moler, P.; Drewes, R. C.; Nussbaum, R. A.; Lynch, J. D.; Green, D. M.; Wheeler, W. C. (2006). "The amphibian tree of life". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 297: 1–291. doi:10.1206/0003-0090(2006)297[0001:TATOL]2.0.CO;2. hdl:2246/5781.
- Pauly, Greg B.; Hillis, David M.; Cannatella, David C. (2009). "Taxonomic freedom and the role of official lists of species names" (PDF). Herpetologica. 65 (2): 115–128. doi:10.1655/08-031R1.1. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 26, 2011.