Dartmoor reservoirs

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Meldon Dam - overflow

Over the course of the 19th and 20th centuries, several reservoirs and dams were built in the area now covered by Dartmoor National Park in Devon, England to supply drinking water to the rapidly growing towns in the surrounding lowlands. With its deep valleys and high rainfall, Dartmoor was an inevitable location. New reservoirs continued construction even after the establishment of the National Park in 1951.

Early schemes to use the moors as a source of drinking water involved the construction of water channels called leats. For example, Drake's Leat (completed 1591) took water to Plymouth and the Devonport Leat (1793) to the docks at Devonport. Rapid population growth of the seaside communities in the late 19th century and the birth of tourism required a significant improvement in quality and quantity of fresh water.[1]

The first Dartmoor reservoir (Tottiford) opened in 1861 and heralded a busy era of dam construction which continued through to 1907, by which time the Dartmoor area was the site of five reservoirs. Three more were to follow during the course of the mid to late 20th century. A fourth, in the valley of the River Swincombe was rejected by the advisory committee of the County Council.[2]

A few long-established Dartmoor farms had to be abandoned and disappeared under the water as a result. During years of drought, some ruins can once again become visible. At Fernworthy, for example, low water levels often reveal the remains of Fernworthy Farm and a small granite Clapper bridge which once crossed the South Teign River. At Avon dam, hut circles are visible at very low water levels. In 2011 an episode of Time Team was devoted to archaeological features discovered in the bed of Tottiford Reservoir.

Reservoir Image Coordinates OS grid ref Opened Notes
Tottiford Tottiford Dam 50°38′10″N 3°40′59″W / 50.636°N 3.683°W / 50.636; -3.683 SX810832 1861 Expanded 1865. Fed by Kennick Reservoir
Kennick Kennick Reservoir - geograph.org.uk - 37698 50°38′49″N 3°41′38″W / 50.647°N 3.694°W / 50.647; -3.694 SX803843 1884 Fed by three minor streams
Burrator Burrator 50°30′00″N 4°02′20″W / 50.500°N 4.039°W / 50.500; -4.039 SX554686 1898 Expanded 1929. Fed by River Meavy, Narrator Brook, Newleycombe Lake, Sheepstor Brook and the Devonport Leat. Includes Sheepstor Dam.
Venford Venford Dam and spillway 50°31′26″N 3°51′22″W / 50.524°N 3.856°W / 50.524; -3.856 SX685709 1907 Fed by water from Holne Moor Leat and others
Trenchford Pier, Trenchford Reservoir - geograph.org.uk - 1262554 50°37′48″N 3°41′28″W / 50.630°N 3.691°W / 50.630; -3.691 SX805824 1907 Fed by Trenchford Stream
Fernworthy Fernworthy Reservoir 50°38′28″N 3°53′20″W / 50.641°N 3.889°W / 50.641; -3.889 SX665840 1942 Fed by South Teign River, Assycombe Brook, Lowton Brook and others
Avon Dam Avon Dam 50°28′23″N 3°51′54″W / 50.473°N 3.865°W / 50.473; -3.865 SX677653 1957 Fed by River Avon and Brockhill Stream
Meldon Meldon Dam 50°42′11″N 4°02′24″W / 50.703°N 4.040°W / 50.703; -4.040 SX560912 1972 Fed by West Okement River

References[edit]

  1. ^ "What Future for Dartmoor's Water Resources?". The Dartmoor Society. Retrieved 21 January 2016. 
  2. ^ Mercer, Ian (2009). Dartmoor - A Statement of its Time. The New Naturalist Library. 111. London: Collins. p. 326. ISBN 978-0-00-718499-6. 

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