Distributed networking

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Distributed networking is a distributed computing network system where components of the program and data depend on multiple sources.

Overview[edit]

Distributed networking, used in distributed computing, is the network system over which computer programming, software, and its data are spread out across more than one computer, but communicate complex messages through their nodes (computers), and are dependent upon each other. The goal of a distributed network is to share resources, typically to accomplish a single or similar goal.[1][2] Usually, this takes place over a computer network[1], however, internet-based computing is rising in popularity. [3] Typically, a distributed networking system is composed of processes, threads, agents, and distributed objects.[3] Merely distributed physical components is not enough to suffice as a distributed network; typically distributed networking uses concurrent program execution. [2]

Client/server[edit]

Client/server computing is a type of distributed computing where one computer, a client, requests data from the server, a primary computing center, which responds to the client directly with the requested data, sometimes through an agent. Client/server distributed networking is also popular in web-based computing. [3] Client/Server is the principle that a client computer can provide certain capabilities for a user and request others from other computers that provide services for the clients. The Web's Hypertext Transfer Protocol is basically all client/server. [1][4][5][6]

Agent-based[edit]

A distributed network can also be agent-based, where what controls the agent or component is loosely defined, and the components can have either pre-configured or dynamic settings. [3]

Decentralized[edit]

Decentralization is where each computer on the network can be used for the computing task at hand, which is the opposite of the client/server model. Typically, only idle computers are used, and in this way, it is thought that networks are more efficient. [5] Peer-to-peer (P2P) computation is based on a decentralized, distributed network, including the distributed ledger technology blockchain. [7][8]

Mesh[edit]

Mesh networking is a local network composed of devices (nodes) that communicate through radio waves, allowing for different types of devices. Each node communicates with every other node on the network. [9]

Advantages of distributed networking[edit]

Prior to the 1980's, computing was typically centralized on a single low-cost desktop computer.[10] But today, computing resources (computers or servers) are typically physically distributed in many places, which distributed networking excels at. Some types of computing doesn't scale well past a certain level of parallelism and the gains of superior hardware components, and thus is bottle-necked, such as by Very Large Scale Instruction Words. By increasing the number of computers rather than the power of their components, these bottlenecks are overcome. Situations where resource sharing becomes an issue, or where higher fault tolerance is needed also find aid in distributed networking.[2] Distributed networking is also very supportative of higher levels of anonynmity. [9]

Cloud computing[edit]

Enterprises with rapid growth and scaling needs may find it challenging to maintain their own distributed network under the traditional client/server computing model. Cloud Computing is the utility of distributed computing over Internet-based applications, storage, and computing services. A cloud is a cluster of computers or servers that are closely connected to provide scaleable, high-capacity computing or related tasks. [2][11]


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Balda, Braveem (April 2015). "Security Enhancement in Distributed Networking" (PDF). International Journal of Computer Science and Mobile Computing. 4 (4): 761. Retrieved 24 September 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d Srinivasa, K.G.; Muppalla, Anil Kumar (Feb 2015). Guide to High Performance Distributed Computing: Case Studies with Hadoop, Scalding and Spark (Computer Communications and Networks). Springer. pp. 4–8. ISBN 978-3319134963. Retrieved 24 September 2018.
  3. ^ a b c d Weija, Jia; Zhou, Wanlei (Dec 2004). Distributed Network Systems: From Concepts to Implementations. Springer. pp. xvii-6. ISBN 978-0387238395. Retrieved 24 September 2018.
  4. ^ Tsenov, Martin (June 2007). "Example of communication between distributed network systems using web services". CompSysTech '07 Proceedings of the 2007 international conference on Computer systems and technologies (35). doi:10.1145/1330598.1330637. Retrieved 24 September 2018.
  5. ^ a b Maly, Robin Jan. "Comparison of centralized (client-server) and decentralized (peer-to-peer) networking. Semester thesis" (PDF). ETH Zurich. ETH Zurich. Retrieved 24 September 2018.
  6. ^ Piliouras, Teresa C. (Dec 2004). Network Design, Second Edition: Management and Technical Perspectives (2nd ed.). CRC Press. p. 353. ISBN 9780849316081. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  7. ^ Mearian, Lucas (31 May 2018). "What is blockchain? The most disruptive tech in decades". Computerworld. Retrieved 24 September 2018.
  8. ^ Raval, Siraj. "Chapter 1. What Is a Decentralized Application?". O'Reilly Safari. O'Reilly Safari. Retrieved 24 September 2018.
  9. ^ a b Sy, Denh (2011). Anonymous yet traceable wireless mesh networking. California State University. ISBN 978-1-124-40072-3. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  10. ^ "A brave new world: the 1980s home computer boom". History Extra. Retrieved 24 September 2018.
  11. ^ "Distributed Computing: Utilities, Grids & Clouds" (PDF). International Telecommunication Union : ITU-T Technology Watch Report. 9. 2009. Retrieved 24 September 2018.