|This article relies too much on references to primary sources. (May 2012)|
JMdict is a large machine-readable multilingual Japanese dictionary. As of August 2013, it contained Japanese–English translations for more than 170,000 entries, representing around 200,000 unique headword–reading combinations. Because the dictionary files are free to use (with attribution), they have been widely adopted on the Internet and are used in many computer and smartphone applications. This project is considered a standard Japanese–English reference on the Internet and is used by the Unihan Database and several other Japanese–English projects.
The JMdict/EDICT project was started by Jim Breen in 1991 with the creation of "EDICT" (a flat-text file in EUC-JP encoding), which was later expanded to a UTF-8-encoded XML file in 1999 as "JMdict". The XML format allows for multiple surface forms of lexemes and multiple readings, as well as cross-references and annotations. It permits glosses in other languages and contains French, German, Russian, etc. translations for many entries. The original EDICT format is still being generated for systems that rely on that format.
An expanded version (EDICT2), which reflects the structure of the XML entries, is produced and is used by several systems including the server for WWWJDIC, Jim Breen's own online dictionary search tool. Versions of JMdict are also produced in the XML format used by Apple's "Dict" application and in the EPWING/JIS X 4081 format used by many Japanese electronic dictionary systems.
Since 1991, JMdict/EDICT has been updated and expanded by many contributors. Since 2000, the EDICT project has been managed by the Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group (EDRDG). In 2010 maintenance of the dictionary was moved to an online database system. The dictionary is managed by an editorial board including Jim Breen and six other editors.
Word class abbreviations
EDICT has a set of word class abbreviations that are used to disambiguate classes with similar word endings.
|MA||martial arts term|
|X||rude or X-rated term (not displayed in educational software)|
|adj-na||adjectival nouns or quasi-adjectives (keiyodoshi)|
|adj-no||nouns which may take the genitive case particle `no'|
|adj-pn||pre-noun adjectival (rentaishi)|
|adj-f||noun or verb acting prenominally|
|adj||former adjective classification (being removed)|
|adv-to||adverb taking the `to' particle|
|ateji||ateji (phonetic) reading|
|exp||Expressions (phrases, clauses, etc.)|
|fem||female term or language|
|gikun||gikun (meaning as reading) or jukujikun (special kanji reading)|
|hon||honorific or respectful (sonkeigo) language|
|hum||humble (kenjougo) language|
|iK||word containing irregular kanji usage|
|ik||word containing irregular kana usage|
|io||irregular okurigana usage|
|male||male term or language|
|n||noun (common) (futsuumeishi)|
|n-adv||adverbial noun (fukushitekimeishi)|
|n-suf||noun, used as a suffix|
|n-pref||noun, used as a prefix|
|n-t||noun (temporal) (jisoumeishi)|
|oK||word containing out-dated kanji|
|ok||out-dated or obsolete kana usage|
|on-mim||onomatopoeic or mimetic word|
|pol||polite (teineigo) language|
|uK||word usually written using kanji alone|
|uk||word usually written using kana alone|
|v2a-s||Nidan verb with 'u' ending (archaic)|
|v4h||Yondan verb with `hu/fu' ending (archaic)|
|v4r||Yondan verb with `ru' ending (archaic)|
|v5||Godan verb (not completely classified)|
|v5aru||Godan verb - -aru special class|
|v5b||Godan verb with `bu' ending|
|v5g||Godan verb with `gu' ending|
|v5k||Godan verb with `ku' ending|
|v5k-s||Godan verb - Iku/Yuku special class|
|v5m||Godan verb with `mu' ending|
|v5n||Godan verb with `nu' ending|
|v5r||Godan verb with `ru' ending|
|v5r-i||Godan verb with `ru' ending (irregular verb)|
|v5s||Godan verb with `su' ending|
|v5t||Godan verb with `tsu' ending|
|v5u||Godan verb with `u' ending|
|v5u-s||Godan verb with `u' ending (special class)|
|v5uru||Godan verb - Uru old class verb (old form of Eru)|
|v5z||Godan verb with `zu' ending|
|vz||Ichidan verb - zuru verb (alternative form of -jiru verbs)|
|vk||Kuru verb - special class|
|vn||irregular nu verb|
|vr||irregular ru verb, plain form ends with -ri|
|vs||noun or participle which takes the aux. verb suru|
|vs-c||su verb - precursor to the modern suru|
|vs-s||suru verb - special class|
|vs-i||suru verb - irregular|
|vulg||vulgar expression or word|
- Breen, Jim. "The EDICT Dictionary File". Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group. Retrieved 8 October 2014.
- "Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group File". Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- Breen, Jim. "JMdict Editorial Board". Monash University. Retrieved 8 October 2014.
- EDICT abbreviation list: http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/jmdict_dtd_h.html
- JMdict/EDICT: Japanese–English Dictionary Project
- WWWJDIC: Official web interface for EDICT
- RomajiDesu: JMDict-based Japanese–English dictionary with a friendly interface
- JEDict: JMDict-based Japanese–English dictionary for OS X
- imiwa?: JMDict-based Japanese–English dictionary for iOS
- Edict for Kindle: can be used as the default dictionary on Kindle Paperwhites, iPads and Android devices.