Human echovirus 9

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Echovirus 9
Virus classification e
(unranked): Virus
Realm: Riboviria
Kingdom: Orthornavirae
Phylum: Pisuviricota
Class: Pisoniviricetes
Order: Picornavirales
Family: Picornaviridae
Genus: Enterovirus
Echovirus 9
  • E-9
  • A23 virus
  • Coxsackie A23

Echovirus 9 (also known as E-9, E.C.H.O. 9, and formerly Coxsackie A23 or A23 virus)[1] is a serotype of echovirus. When first discovered, it was labelled as a coxsackie A virus, A23. It was later discovered that A23 was an echovirus antigenically identical to the already-known echovirus 9.[2]

Echovirus 9 is the most common enterovirus type.[3] It is a common cause of illness in humans, although unlike many enteroviruses, it rarely infects infants.[3] Its transmission is facilitated by crowded conditions. Those who are slightly ill and children are at particular risk of contracting echovirus 9 (A23).[4]


  1. ^ Pasamanick B (1962-02-24). "Brain-damaged Children". British Medical Journal. 1 (5277): 558–559. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.5277.558-a. PMC 1958287.
  2. ^ Mahy BW (2001). A dictionary of virology (3rd ed.). Academic Press. pp. 1. ISBN 978-0-12-465327-6.
  3. ^ a b Cherry JD, Krogstad P (2011). "Enterovirus and Parechovirus Infections". Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn (Seventh ed.). pp. 756–799. doi:10.1016/B978-1-4160-6400-8.00024-9. ISBN 9781416064008.
  4. ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (August 2004). "Aseptic meningitis outbreak associated with echovirus 9 among recreational vehicle campers--Connecticut, 2003". MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 53 (31): 710–3. PMID 15306755.

Further reading[edit]

  • ICTV 7th Report van Regenmortel, M.H.V., Fauquet, C.M., Bishop, D.H.L., Carstens, E.B., Estes, M.K., Lemon, S.M., Maniloff, J., Mayo, M.A., McGeoch, D.J., Pringle, C.R. and Wickner, R.B. (2000). Virus taxonomy. Seventh report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Academic Press, San Diego. p663