Enforcer (ship design)

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Ship LPD-Castilla-(L52).jpg
Castilla in 2009
Class overview
Name: Enforcer
General characteristics
Type: Landing Platform Dock

The Enforcer is a ship design jointly developed by the Royal Netherlands Navy and the Spanish Navy.[1][2]

Development began in the 1980s, when the Royal Netherlands Navy began investigating ways to provide an amphibious transport capability.[3] In 1994, preliminary design work began.[3] The Spanish government proposed in 1990 to collaborate on the design.[3] A Memorandum of Understanding was signed in June 1992.[3] Development of the base design occurred during 1993, after which the navies turned local companies for further design work and construction: Royal Schelde in the Netherlands, and Bazán (which became Navantia in 2005) in Spain.[3]

Royal Schelde completed one ship to the Rotterdam class, with HNLMS Rotterdam constructed between 1995 and 1998.[3] A second ship, HNLMS Johan de Witt, was laid down in 2003 and commissioned in 2007.[4] Bazan/Navantia completed two ships to the Galicia-class design.

The Enforcer design also served as the basis of the British Bay-class landing ships.[5] Four vessels were built for the Royal Fleet Auxiliary by two shipyards between 2002 and 2007, with one sold in 2011 to the Royal Australian Navy.[5]

After building Rotterdam, Royal Schelde developed the "Enforcer Family": four variants of the Enforcer design intended for export sale.[3] Increased modularity, less powerful propulsion systems, and increased use of commercial construction standards allowed the company to offer the export variants at lower prices.[3] The Enforcer design was considered a contender for the Indian Navy Multi-Role Support Vessel programme.[6]


  1. ^ "Sealift: Rotterdam/Galicia (Enforcer) Class LPD". Canadian American Strategic Review. Archived from the original on 26 December 2007. Retrieved 5 August 2012. 
  2. ^ "Sealifter Comparisons — Rotterdam Class LPD". Canadian American Strategic Review. Archived from the original on 25 January 2008. Retrieved 5 August 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h "Netherlands - Rotterdam Class Landing Platform, Dock (LPD)". AMI International. October 2001. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 5 August 2012. 
  4. ^ Wertheim, Eric, ed. (2007). The Naval Institute Guide to Combat Fleets of the World: Their Ships, Aircraft, and Systems (15th ed.). Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. p. 495. ISBN 9781591149552. OCLC 140283156. 
  5. ^ a b Saunders, Stephen (ed.) (2008). Jane's Fighting Ships 2008–2009. Jane's Fighting Ships (111th ed.). Surrey: Jane's Information Group. p. 876. ISBN 978-0-7106-2845-9. OCLC 225431774. 
  6. ^ "Multi-Role Support Ship (MRSS)". Global Security. Retrieved 12 September 2015.