|Farrukh Yassar I|
|Shah of Shirvan|
Silver coin minted during reign of Farrukh Yassar
|Spouse||Daughter of Usmi of Kaitag Adil bey|
Shirvanshah Bahram Beg
Ibrahim II Sheykhshah
Princess Govhershakh – Married to Uzun Hasan's son Sultan Yagub
|House||House of Shirvanshah|
Farrukh Yassar was the last independent Shirvanshah of Shirvan (1465–1500). In 1500, the first Safavid ruler, Ismail I, decisively defeated and killed Farrukh Yassar during his conquest of the area. Descendants of Farrukh Yassar continued to rule Shirvan under Safavid suzerainty, until 1538, when Ismail's son and successor Tahmasp I (r. 1524-1576) appointed its first Safavid governor, and made it a fully functioning Safavid province.
He averted strategy of his ancestor's - alliance with Timurids, instead he moved towards Uzun Hasan. He married his daughter to Uzun Hasan's son Sultan Yagub. On 31 January 1468 the combined forces of Shirvanshahs and Ak Koyunlu defeated Timurid khan Abu Sa'id Mirza. Future sultans of Ak Koyunlu - Baysonqor and Murad were his grandsons.
He sent his "Khalaf ul umarah and akabir" (Deputy of emirs and nobles) Ziyaaddin Yusif and his personal merchant Khawja Yar Ahmad with 2 bullions of gold to Istanbul, in order to establish relations with Mehmet the Conqueror.
In 1465, Shirvanshah envoy Hasan Shirvani was sent to Moscow in order to establish diplomatic relations, in response Ivan III of Russia sent an embassy with leadership of Vasily Papin and a group of merchants (which also included Afanasy Nikitin) for trade and a pact against Golden Horde.
During Uzun Hasan's reign, relations with Safavids were quite peaceful. But, in 1488 Shaykh Haydar of Safaviyya extremist Shia sect moved through Shirvan towards Derbent, supposedly to wage jihad against Circassians, but instead laid siege to Shamakhy. He captured the capital and burned it. Farrukh Yassar was not able to mount defense and asked his son-in-law Sultan Yagub of Ak Koyunlu to come to his rescue on 9 June 1488. Upon hearing his arrival, Sheikh retreated to Derbent. Combined forces of Ak Koyunlu under Suleiman bey and Shirvanshah forces which were led by shah himself, attacked to Qizilbash on 9 July 1488. Their combined forces were able to defeat the Safavid Qizilbash forces and were Shaykh Haydar was wounded by an arrow. He was captured by gatekeeper Ali aga who severed his head and sent to Sultan Yagub.
Ak Koyunlu civil war
Upon death of his son-in-law in 1490, he supported his grandson Baysonqor for keeping the throne. In 1492, he fled to Shirvan upon dethronement. However he was killed in a battle between Barda and Ganja. Brother of Baysonqor, Murad also fled to Shirvan sometime later and stayed there until 1497.
In 1497 Shaki ruler Shah Hussain rebelled with Shah's youngest son future king Ibrahim II Sheykhshah and raided Gabala for 8 days. Shah crushed them with his other sons and Abulfath beg - wali of Gabala. However, they were pardoned.
Later reign and death
Young Ismail was freed by his cousin, new Ak Koyunlu sultan Rustam in 1492. He decided to take revenge of his father, but rulers of Ardabil Ali beg Jayirli and Talysh ruler Muhammed who were vassals of Shirvanshahs did not give any help when demanded. Ismail then moved on to Karabakh and then to Erzincan. In 1499, he began to march on Shirvan. Two forces met on Battle of Jabani, near Shamakhy. Shirvanese forces were devastated and shah were captured and beheaded. Ismail captured Shamakhy, and moved on to Baku.
He was remembered as merciful and glorious ruler by sources. His personal title was "Shiranshah" (Persian: King of lions). Construction of Tuba Shahi Mosque and Juma Mosque in Derbent were patronized by himself.
Farrukh Yassar was married to daughter of Usmi of Kaitag Adil bey
- Gazi Beg - Shirvanshah in 1501.
- Shirvanshah Bahram Beg - Shirvanshah in 1502.
- Ibrahim II Sheykhshah - Shirvanshah after his brothers.
- Princess Govhershakh – Married to Uzun Hasan's son Sultan Yaqub.
- Fisher et al. 1986, pp. 212, 245.
- M.M.Алтьман. Из истории торгово-дипломатических cвязeй Mocквы и Шиpвaнa. Tp. Ин-тa истории им. A.Бaкиxaнoвa, т.I, Бaкy, 1947, c.157
- The early yeaгs of Shah Isma'il, founder of the Safawi Dynasty, by E. Denisson Ross. JRAS, vol. 29, 1896. p.257-260
- Hasan Rumlu - Ihsan at Tawarikh
- "Tarikh-i alam ara-yi Amini" by Fazlallah bin Ruzbihan, p. 67-71
- T.M.Myceви. Cpeднeвeкoвыe дoкyмeнты пo истории b Бaкy, 1967, c.81-82
- Fisher, William Bayne; Avery, P.; Hambly, G. R. G; Melville, C. (1986). The Cambridge History of Iran. 6. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521200943.
Farrukh YassarBorn: 1441 Died: 1500
Shirvanshah Bahram Beg