Arithmetic and geometric Frobenius
In mathematics, the Frobenius endomorphism is defined in any commutative ring R that has characteristic p, where p is a prime number. Namely, the mapping φ that takes r in R to rp is a ring endomorphism of R.
The terminology of geometric Frobenius arises by applying the spectrum of a ring construction to φ. This gives a mapping
- φ*: Spec(Rp) → Spec(R)
Mappings created by fibre product with φ*, i.e. base changes, tend in scheme theory to be called geometric Frobenius. The reason for a careful terminology is that the Frobenius automorphism in Galois groups, or defined by transport of structure, is often the inverse mapping of the geometric Frobenius. As in the case of a cyclic group in which a generator is also the inverse of a generator, there are in many situations two possible definitions of Frobenius, and without a consistent convention some problem of a minus sign may appear.