# Frostman lemma

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In mathematics, and more specifically, in the theory of fractal dimensions, Frostman's lemma provides a convenient tool for estimating the Hausdorff dimension of sets.

Lemma: Let A be a Borel subset of Rn, and let s > 0. Then the following are equivalent:

${\displaystyle \mu (B(x,r))\leq r^{s}}$
holds for all x ∈ Rn and r>0.

Otto Frostman proved this lemma for closed sets A as part of his PhD dissertation at Lund University in 1935. The generalization to Borel sets is more involved, and requires the theory of Suslin sets.

A useful corollary of Frostman's lemma requires the notions of the s-capacity of a Borel set A ⊂ Rn, which is defined by

${\displaystyle C_{s}(A):=\sup {\Bigl \{}{\Bigl (}\int _{A\times A}{\frac {d\mu (x)\,d\mu (y)}{|x-y|^{s}}}{\Bigr )}^{-1}:\mu {\text{ is a Borel measure and }}\mu (A)=1{\Bigr \}}.}$

(Here, we take inf ∅ = ∞ and ​1 = 0. As before, the measure ${\displaystyle \mu }$ is unsigned.) It follows from Frostman's lemma that for Borel A ⊂ Rn

${\displaystyle \mathrm {dim} _{H}(A)=\sup\{s\geq 0:C_{s}(A)>0\}.}$