Fuller (groove)

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Bayonet attached to a British L85A2 rifle. Note the barrel to the left and slot in the blade to attach the wire-cutter scabbard.
Imperial German S98/05 "Butcher Blade" Bayonet
Bayonet for the Lee–Enfield Rifle No. 5 Mk I "Jungle Carbine"
US military bayonets; from the top down, they are the M1905, the M1, M1905E1 Bowie Point Bayonet (a cut down version of the M1905), and the M4 Bayonet for the M1 Carbine. The top 3 blades each have fullers
In bladesmithing, fullers are often used in pairs. The upper fuller has a flat surface for striking with a hammer, while the lower fuller has a square peg that fits into the anvil. The fullers displace material in the blade, causing it to move sideways and bulge outward from the surface.

A fuller is a rounded or beveled longitudinal groove or slot along the flat side of a blade (e.g., a sword, knife, or bayonet) that is made using a blacksmithing tool called a spring swage or, like the groove, a fuller. A fuller is often used to lighten the blade. When combined with proper distal tapers, heat treatment and blade tempering, a fullered blade can be 20% to 35% lighter than a non-fullered blade with minimal sacrifice of strength or blade integrity. This effect lessens as the blade is reduced in length. A blade is said to be "fullered" after introduction of the groove.

Fullers are sometimes called blood grooves or blood gutters, although the idea that channeling blood is their only purpose or even their main purpose is dubious.[1][2]

Etymology[edit]

The term "fuller" is from the Old English fuliere, meaning 'one that fulls [pleats] cloth'. It is derived from the Latin word fullo. The first recorded use of the term as a metalworking noun is before the 12th century.[3]

Tool[edit]

Blacksmithing swages.

As a blacksmithing tool, a fuller is a type of swage. A swage is a tool that has a particular shape forged into its surface, which is used to imprint that shape into the metal. Swages are often tools with handles and various shaped heads, which are placed between the hammer and the workpiece, allowing the smith to work the steel into various shapes that would be impossible to make with a hammer alone. Swage blocks are anvil-like blocks with various shapes forged in them, also for forming metal. The term "swage" is from the Old French souage, meaning 'decorative groove' or 'ornamental moulding'.

Fullers, in particular, are swages that have a cylindrical or beveled face, typically three to six inches long, which are used for imprinting grooves into the steel. If a groove is to be applied to both sides of the steel, two fullers may be used at the same time, sandwiching the workpiece in the middle. Often, one fuller will have a peg that holds it securely in the anvil, while the other fuller will have a handle and a flat head, for striking with a hammer. Sometimes the two fullers may be connected with a flatbar of spring steel which is bent into a wide, "C" shaped bracket, keeping the two fullers aligned with each other and freeing the smith's hands for manipulating the workpiece and hammer. A blade being fullered will generally be slowly pulled through the fullers as they are being hammered, until the entire groove is the proper depth and shape. As the fullers make the groove, they typically displace material to the side, creating ridges around the grooves. These ridges may be hammered flat, widening the blade, or they are often shaped with other swages, increasing the strength of the blade by creating thicker areas in its cross section.

Fullers have a variety of uses beyond bladesmithing. They are often used for "drawing out" steel, which consists of hammering a short block into a long bar. The fullers will often be used to notch the block or bar. If the fullers are longer than the block is wide, they will tend to lengthen the block rather than raise bulges from the surface. After notching, the block is hammered smooth, elongating it further, and this process is repeated until the bar assumes the correct length and thickness. Fullers are also used for other shaping processes in blacksmithing, from making hinges and latches to plow parts and horseshoes.[4]

Japanese blades[edit]

In Japanese swordsmithing, fullers have a rich tradition and terminology, enough that there are separate terminologies for the top (hi, usually pronounced as bi when used as the second member of a compound) and bottom (tome) ends of the feature.

  • Bo-hi: A continuous straight groove of notable width, known as katana-bi on tantō. With soe-bi, a secondary narrow groove follows the inner straight length of the main one. With tsure-bi, the secondary is similar but continues beyond the straight length.
  • Futasuji-hi: Two parallel grooves.
  • Shobu-hi: A groove shaped like the leaf of an iris plant.
  • Naginata-hi: A miniature bo-hi whose top is oriented opposite from the blade's, and usually accompanied by a soe-hi. Seen primarily on naginatas.
  • Kuichigai-hi: Two thin grooves that run the top half of the blade; the bottom half is denoted by the outer groove stopping halfway while the inner one expands to fill the width.
  • Koshi-hi: A short rounded-top groove found near the bottom of a blade, near to the tang.
  • Tome
  • Kaki-toshi: The groove runs all the way down to the end of the tang.
  • Kaki-nagashi: The groove tapers to a pointed end halfway down the tang.
  • Kaku-dome: The groove stops as a square end within 3 cm of the tang's upper end.
  • Maru-dome: Similar to the kaku, except with a rounded-end.

The kukri[edit]

The Nepali kukri has a terminology of its own, including the "aunlo bal" (finger of strength/force/energy), a relatively deep and narrow fuller near the spine of the blade, which runs (at most) between the handle and the corner of the blade, and the "chirra", which may refer either to shallow fullers in the belly of the blade or a hollow grind of the edge, and of which two or three may be used on each side of the blade.[5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Knife Encyclopedia; Blood Groove". A.G. Russell Knives. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
  2. ^ De Santis, Alessandra (13 May 2017). "Fuller". Ultimate Knives and Gear. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
  3. ^ Fuller. Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
  4. ^ English Mechanic and World of Science: With which are Incorporated "the Mechanic", "Scientific Opinion," and the "British and Foreign Mechanic.". 54. E. J. Kibblewhite. 1892. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
  5. ^ "Khukuri Construction and Technology". Himalayan Imports. Retrieved 18 June 2021.

Further reading[edit]