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A government organized non-governmental organization (GONGO) is a non-governmental organization that may have been set up by a government to look like an NGO in order to qualify for outside aid or mitigate specific issues related to in-country work or international relations.[1] Often, GONGOs are set up by undemocratic governments[2][3][4] to maintain some level of control of the GONGO's personnel, purpose, operation or activities. This control is often not seen in a positive light, as it filters the spirit of an NGO through a government's intentions, leaving it open to the issues (complications, corruption, non-democratic action, etc.) that may be embedded in the host government.[2][5]

The term GONGO had become an established term by the late 1980s,[6] and it was suggested it was first introduced by a group of Indonesian NGOs.[7]

Examples of government organized non-governmental organizations[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Natalie Steinberg, "Background Paper on GONGOs and QUANGOs and Wild NGOs," World Federalist Movement Institute of Global Policy, 2001
  2. ^ a b Naím, Moisés: Democracy's Dangerous Impostors, The Washington Post, 21 April 2007.
  3. ^ F Ching, "Is it an NGO, or a GONGO?: new Chinese body rebuts US report on human rights," Far East. Econ. Rev, 1994
  4. ^ F Wu, "Environmental GONGO autonomy: unintended consequences of state strategies in China," The Good Society, 2003
  5. ^ Jennifer Hsu and Reza Hasmath (2014) “The Local Corporatist State and NGO Relations in China”, Journal of Contemporary China 23(87).
  6. ^ Brown LD, Korten D. 1989. The role of voluntary organizations in development. IDR Work. Pap. No. 8. Boston: Inst. Dev. Res./Boston Univ. Sch. Manage.
  7. ^ Radhamany Sooryamoorthy, K. D. Gangrade, Ngos in India: A Cross-Sectional Study, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001, ISBN 0313319545, ISBN 9780313319549
  8. ^ This information comes from China Non-Profit Sector. http://www.amazon.com/Chinas-Nonprofit-Sector-Progress-Challenges/dp/141285296X
  9. ^ - The Daily Beast. "Anti-Nazi Group Secretly Helping Kremlin Rebuild Russian Empire". 
  10. ^ http://foreignpolicy.com/2009/10/13/what-is-a-gongo/

External links[edit]