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Temporal range: Carboniferous–Recent
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Gymnospermae
Division: Ginkgophyta
Class: Ginkgoopsida
Proposed orders

Ginkgoopsida is a proposed class of gymnosperms defined by Sergei V. Meyen in 1984 to encompass Ginkgoales (which contains the living Ginkgo) alongside a number of extinct seed plant groups, which he considered to be closely related based on similarities of morphology of pollen, seeds, cuticles, short shoots and leaves.[1][2][3] The validity of this group as a whole has been considered questionable by other authors, who consider that it is unlikely to be monophyletic.[4] Other authors have used the class as a monotypic grouping, including only Ginkgoales.[5] Some authors have used the clade Ginkgophyta to encompass both Ginkgoales and Czekanowskiales/Leptostrobales, are suggested to be closely related groups.[6]


  1. ^ SV Meyen, Basic features of gymnosperm systematics and phylogeny as shown by the fossil record. Bot Rev 50, 1–111 (1984).
  2. ^ Meyen, Sergei V. (January 1987). "Evolution of Ginkgoopsida: from Peltaspermales to Ginkgoales, Leptostrobales and Caytoniales". Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France. Actualités Botaniques. 134 (2): 67–76. doi:10.1080/01811789.1987.10826864. ISSN 0181-1789.
  3. ^ Herrera, Fabiany; Shi, Gongle; Ichinnorov, Niiden; Takahashi, Masamichi; Bugdaeva, Eugenia V.; Herendeen, Patrick S.; Crane, Peter R. (2017-03-21). "The presumed ginkgophyte Umaltolepis has seed-bearing structures resembling those of Peltaspermales and Umkomasiales". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 114 (12): E2385–E2391. doi:10.1073/pnas.1621409114. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 5373332. PMID 28265050.
  4. ^ Beck, Charles B. (July 1985). "Gymnosperm Phylogeny — A commentary on the views of S. V. Meyen". The Botanical Review. 51 (3): 273–294. doi:10.1007/BF02861076. ISSN 0006-8101. S2CID 7535841.
  5. ^ Yang, Yong; Ferguson, David Kay; Liu, Bing; Mao, Kang-Shan; Gao, Lian-Ming; Zhang, Shou-Zhou; Wan, Tao; Rushforth, Keith; Zhang, Zhi-Xiang (July 2022). "Recent advances on phylogenomics of gymnosperms and a new classification". Plant Diversity. 44 (4): 340–350. doi:10.1016/j.pld.2022.05.003. PMC 9363647. PMID 35967253.
  6. ^ Wang, Jing-Jing; Xin, Cun-Lin; Wang, Lu-Han; Zhang, Ya-Mei; Jiao, Zhi-Peng; Di, Guo-Yun; Liu, Song-Xin (2022-10-03). "Numerical taxonomy of Ginkgophyta fossils in China". Historical Biology. 34 (10): 2037–2052. doi:10.1080/08912963.2021.1999939. ISSN 0891-2963.