Grégoire de Saint-Vincent
Grégoire gave the "clearest early account of the summation of geometric series.":136 He also resolved Zeno's paradox by showing that the time intervals involved formed a geometric progression and thus had a finite sum.:137
Ductus plani in planum
The contribution of Opus Geometricum was in
- making extensive use of spatial imagery to create a multitude of solids, the volumes of which reduce to a single construction depending on the ductus of a rectilinear figure, in the absence of [algebraic notation and integral calculus] systematic geometric transformation fulfilled an essential role.:144
For example, the "ungula is formed by cutting a right circular cylinder by means of an oblique plane through a diameter of the circular base." And also the "’double ungula formed from cylinders with axes at right angles.":145 Ungula was changed to "onglet" in French by Blaise Pascal when he wrote Traité des trilignes rectangles et leurs onglets.:147
Grégoire wrote his manuscript in the 1620s but it waited until 1647 before publication. Then it "attracted a great deal of attention...because of the systematic approach to volumetric integration developed under the name ductus plani in planum.:135 "The construction of solids by means of two plane surfaces standing in the same ground line" is the method ductus in planum and is developed in Book VII of Opus Geometricum:139
In the matter of quadrature of the hyperbola, "Grégoire does everything save give explicit recognition to the relation between the area of the hyperbolic segment and the logarithm.":138
Quadrature of the hyperbola
- a/b = c/d.
This observation led to the natural logarithm. The stated property allows one to define a function A(x) which is the area under said curve from 1 to x, which has the property that This functional property characterizes logarithms, and it was mathematical fashion to call such a function A(x) a logarithm. In particular when we choose the rectangular hyperbola xy = 1, one recovers the natural logarithm.
To a large extent, recognition of de Saint-Vincent's achievement in quadrature of the hyperbola is due to his student and co-worker A. A. de Sarasa, who publicized the interpretation as a logarithm. A modern approach to his theorem uses squeeze mapping in linear algebra.
The following estimation was given by a historian of the calculus:
- As a consequence of the work of Gregory St. Vincent and de Sarasa, it seems to have been generally known in the 1660s that the area of a segment under the hyperbola y = 1/x is proportional to the logarithm of the ratio of the ordinates at the ends of the segment.
- Margaret E. Baron (1969) The Origins of the Infinitesimal Calculus, Pergamon Press, republished 2014 by Elsevier, Google Books preview
- Blaise Pascal Lettre de Dettonville de Carcavi describes the onglet and double onglet, link from HathiTrust
- In 1647, Gregoire de Saint-Vincent published his book, Opus geometricum quadraturae circuli et sectionum coni (Geometric work of squaring the circle and conic sections), vol. 2 (Antwerp, (Belgium): Johannes and Jakob Meursius, 1647). In Book 6, part 4, page 586, Proposition CIX, he proves that if the abscissas of points are in geometric proportion, then the areas between a hyperbola and the abscissas are in arithmetic proportion. This finding allowed Saint-Vincent's former student, Alphonse Antonio de Sarasa, to prove that the area between a hyperbola and the abscissa of a point is proportional to the abscissa's logarithm, thus uniting the algebra of logarithms with the geometry of hyperbolas.
See also: Enrique A. González-Velasco, Journey through Mathematics: Creative Episodes in Its History (New York, New York: Springer, 2011), page 118.
- C.H. Edwards, Jr. (1979) The Historical Development of the Calculus, page 164, Springer-Verlag, ISBN 0-387-90436-0
- Christiaan Huygens (1651) Examen de la Cyclométrie du três savant Grégoire de Saint-Vincent, Oeuvres Complètes, Tome XI, link from Internet Archive.
- David Eugene Smith (1923) History of Mathematics, Ginn & Co., v.1, p. 425.
- Hans Wussing (2008) 6000 Jahre Mathematik: eine kulturgeschichtliche Zeitreise, S. 433, Springer, ISBN 9783540771920 .
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