Orthohepevirus

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Orthohepevirus
Virus classification
Group: Group IV ((+)ssRNA)
Order: Unassigned
Family: Hepeviridae
Genus: Orthohepevirus
Type species
Orthohepevirus A
Species

Orthohepevirus A Orthohepevirus B Orthohepevirus C Orthohepevirus D

Orthohepevirus is a genus of viruses assigned to the Hepeviridae family. Orthohepevirus is a fairly isolated viral genus in which the virions are characterized by round, non-enveloped and isometric capsids with a diameter of 27–34 nm. The type species is Orthohepevirus A, more commonly known as the Hepatitis E virus.[1]

Genome[edit]

Orthohepevirus have RNA genomes of 7176 nucleotides in length and infect vertebrates. Additionally, the genome is monopartite, linear, and single-stranded. The genome is 5' capped with a poly A tail at the 3' end. The genome possesses three main open reading frames. The first encodes non-structural proteins, the second encodes the capsid proteins, and the third encodes a small, multifunctional protein.

Taxonomy[edit]

Viruses from this genus have been isolated from birds and bats.[2][3] The creation of new species within this genus to accommodate these viruses seems likely. At least three species of hepatitis E-like viruses have been isolated from birds.[4]

A Hepatitis E-like virus has been isolated from a Swedish moose.[5] This virus is quite distinct from the other known Hepatitis E viruses.

In total, the genus has four recognized species: Orthohepevirus A, Orthohepevirus B, which was previously known as the avian hepatitis E virus, Orthohepevirus C, and Orthohepevirus D.

A species has been isolated from a trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii).[6] This species has been placed in a different genus - Piscihepevirus

History[edit]

Hepatitis E was first isolated in 1990. It was thought to be restricted to humans until 1997 when it was isolated from pigs.[7] The first isolation from birds was in 2001.[8]

Evolution[edit]

One study has suggested that this species may have originated in birds and then spread to bats and other mammalian species.[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ ICTVdB Management (2006). 00.084.0.01. Hepevirus. In: ICTVdB—The Universal Virus Database, version 4. Büchen-Osmond, C. (Ed), Columbia University, New York, USA
  2. ^ Drexler JF, Seelen A, Corman VM, Fumie Tateno A, Cottontail V, Melim Zerbinati R, Gloza-Rausch F, Klose SM, Adu-Sarkodie Y, Oppong SK, Kalko EK, Osterman A, Rasche A, Adam A, Müller MA, Ulrich RG, Leroy EM, Lukashev AN, Drosten C (2012) Bats worldwide carry hepatitis E-related viruses that form a putative novel genus within the family Hepeviridae. J Virol
  3. ^ Marek A, Bilic I, Prokofieva I, Hess M (2010) Phylogenetic analysis of avian hepatitis E virus samples from European and Australian chicken flocks supports the existence of a different genus within the Hepeviridae comprising at least three different genotypes. Vet Microbiol 145(1–2):54–61
  4. ^ Zhao Q, Sun Y, Zhou E (2012) Detection and description of avian hepatitis E virus isolated in China—a review. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao 52(3):279–825
  5. ^ Lin J, Norder H, Uhlhorn H, Belák S, Widén F (2013) Novel Hepatitis E like virus found in Swedish moose. J Gen Virol doi: 10.1099/vir.0.059238-0
  6. ^ Batts W, Yun S, Hedrick R, Winton J. 2011. A novel member of the family Hepeviridae from cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii). Virus Res 158:116–123
  7. ^ Meng XJ, Purcell RH, Halbur PG, Lehman JR, Webb DM, Tsareva TS, Haynes JS, Thacker BJ, Emerson SU (1997) A novel virus in swine is closely related to the human hepatitis E virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94(18):9860-9865
  8. ^ Haqshenas G, Shivaprasad HL, Woolcock PR, Read DH, Meng XJ (2001) Genetic identification and characterization of a novel virus related to human hepatitis E virus from chickens with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in the United States. J Gen Virol 82:2449–2462
  9. ^ Drexler JF, Seelen A, Corman VM, Fumie Tateno A, Cottontail V, Melim Zerbinati R, Gloza-Rausch F, Klose SM, Adu-Sarkodie Y, Oppong SK, Kalko EK, Osterman A, Rasche A, Adam A, Müller MA, Ulrich RG, Leroy EM, Lukashev AN, Drosten C (2012) Bats worldwide carry hepatitis E virus-related viruses that form a putative novel genus within the family Hepeviridae. J Virol 86(17):9134-9147. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00800-12

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