Hill equation (biochemistry)
||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (March 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
In biochemistry and pharmacology, the binding of a ligand to a macromolecule is often enhanced if there are already other ligands present on the same macromolecule (this is known as cooperative binding). The Hill coefficient provides a way to quantify this effect.
It describes the fraction of the macromolecule saturated by ligand as a function of the ligand concentration; it is used in determining the degree of cooperativeness of the ligand binding to the enzyme or receptor. It was originally formulated by Archibald Hill in 1910 to describe the sigmoidal O2 binding curve of haemoglobin.
A coefficient of 1 indicates completely independent binding, regardless of how many additional ligands are already bound. Numbers greater than one indicate positive cooperativity, while numbers less than one indicate negative cooperativity. The Hill coefficient of oxygen binding to haemoglobin is 2.3-3.0.
- - fraction of the ligand-binding sites on the receptor protein which are occupied by the ligand.
- - free (unbound) ligand concentration
- - Apparent dissociation constant derived from the law of mass action (equilibrium constant for dissociation)
- - ligand concentration producing half occupation (ligand concentration occupying half of the binding sites). This is also the microscopic dissociation constant. In recent literature, this constant is sometimes referred to as .
- - Hill coefficient, describing cooperativity (or possibly other biochemical properties, depending on the context in which the Hill equation is being used)
Taking the reciprocal of both sides, rearranging, inverting again, and then taking the logarithm on both sides of the equation leads to an alternative formulation of the Hill equation:
When appropriate, the value of the Hill coefficient describes the cooperativity of ligand binding in the following way:
- - Positively cooperative binding: Once one ligand molecule is bound to the enzyme, its affinity for other ligand molecules increases.
- - Negatively cooperative binding: Once one ligand molecule is bound to the enzyme, its affinity for other ligand molecules decreases.
- - Noncooperative binding: The affinity of the enzyme for a ligand molecule is not dependent on whether or not other ligand molecules are already bound. In this case, the Hill equation (as a relationship between the concentration of a compound adsorbing to binding sites and the fractional occupancy of the binding sites) is equivalent to the Langmuir equation.
The Hill equation is related to the logistic function and is in some ways a logarithmic transform of it, i.e. when you plot the Hill function on a log scale it looks identical to a logistic function. This is particularly important if the range of concentrations that results in saturation does not vary over several orders of magnitude. In such a case the logistic function would be a more appropriate equation to model the behavior.
- Hill, A. V. (1910-01-22). "The possible effects of the aggregation of the molecules of hæmoglobin on its dissociation curves". J. Physiol. 40 (Suppl): iv–vii. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1910.sp001386.
- Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary
- Nelson, David L.; Cox, Michael M. Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry (4th ed.).
- Coval, ML (December 1970). "Analysis of Hill interaction coefficients and the invalidity of the Kwon and Brown equation". J. Biol. Chem. 245 (23): 6335–6. PMID 5484812.
- d'A Heck, Henry (1971). "Statistical theory of cooperative binding to proteins. Hill equation and the binding potential". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 93 (1): 23–29. doi:10.1021/ja00730a004.
- Atkins, Gordon L. (1973). "A simple digital-computer program for estimating the parameter of the Hill Equation". Eur. J. Biochem. 33 (1): 175–180. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1973.tb02667.x.
- Endrenyi, Laszlo; Kwong, F. H. F.; Fajszi, Csaba (1975). "Evaluation of Hill slopes and Hill coefficients when the saturation binding or velocity is not known". Eur. J. Biochem. 51 (2): 317–328. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1975.tb03931.x.
- Voet, Donald; Voet, Judith G. Biochemistry.
- Weiss, J. N. (1997). "The Hill equation revisited: uses and misuses". FASEB Journal. 11 (11): 835–841. PMID 9285481.
- Kurganov, B. I.; Lobanov, A. V. (2001). "Criterion for Hill equation validity for description of biosensor calibration curves". Anal. Chim. Acta. 427 (1): 11–19. doi:10.1016/S0003-2670(00)01167-3.
- Goutelle, Sylvain; Maurin, Michel; Rougier, Florent; Barbaut, Xavier; Bourguignon, Laurent; Ducher, Michel; Maire, Pascal (2008). "The Hill equation: a review of its capabilities in pharmacological modelling". Fund. Clinic. Pharmac. 22: 633–648. doi:10.1111/j.1472-8206.2008.00633.x.
- Mitavskiy, B.; Chu, D.; Zabet., Radu (2009). "Models of transcription factor binding: Sensitivity of activation functions to model assumptions.". Journal of Theoretical Biology. 257 (3): 419–429. doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2008.11.026. PMID 19121637.
- Gesztelyi R; Zsuga J; Kemeny-Beke A; Varga B; Juhasz B; Tosaki A (2012). "The Hill equation and the origin of quantitative pharmacology". Archive for History of Exact Sciences. 66: 427–38. doi:10.1007/s00407-012-0098-5.
- Colquhoun D (2006). "The quantitative analysis of drug-receptor interactions: a short history". Trends Pharmacol Sci. 27 (3): 149–57. doi:10.1016/j.tips.2006.01.008. PMID 16483674.
- Rang HP (2006). "The receptor concept: pharmacology's big idea". Br J Pharmacol. 147: S9–16. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0706457. PMC . PMID 16402126.
- Neubig RR; Spedding M; Kenakin T; Christopoulos A (2003). "International Union of Pharmacology Committee on Receptor Nomenclature and Drug Classification. XXXVIII. update on terms and symbols in quantitative pharmacology". Pharmacol Rev. 55: 597–606. doi:10.1124/pr.55.4.4.