Human-body model

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The human-body model (HBM) is the most commonly used model for characterizing the susceptibility of an electronic device to damage from electrostatic discharge (ESD). The model is a simulation of the discharge which might occur when a human touches an electronic device.

The HBM definition most widely used is the test model defined in the United States military standard, MIL-STD-883, Method 3015.9, Electrostatic Discharge Sensitivity Classification. This method establishes a simplified equivalent electrical circuit and the necessary test procedures required to model an HBM ESD event.

An internationally widely used standard is JEDEC standard JS-001.

HBM is used primarily for manufacturing environments. A similar standard, IEC 61000-4-2, is used for system level testing.


In both JS-001-2012 and MIL-STD-883H the charged human body is modeled by a 100 pF capacitor and a 1500 ohm discharging resistance. During testing, the capacitor is fully charged to several kilovolts (2 kV, 4 kV, 6 kV and 8 kV are typical standard levels) and then discharged through the resistor connected in series to the device under test.

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