Imperial and royal titles of the Mughal emperors
Alam Panah / Jahan Panah / Azam Panah
Prince Shah Khurram, later called the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, (full title: Shahenshah Al-Sultan al-'Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram, Malik-ul-Sultanat, Ala Hazrat Abu'l-Muzaffar Shahab ud-din Muhammad Shah Jahan I, Sahib-i-Qiran-i-Sani, Padshah Ghazi Zillu'llah, Firdaus-Ashiyani, Shahenshah-E-Sultanat Ul-Hindiyyah Wal Mughaliyyah.) [Persianized-Arabic transliterated pronunciation:
Shāhenshāh as-Sulṭān al-’A‘aẓam wa-’l-Khāqān al-Mukarram, Māliku ’s-Sulṭānāt, ‘ala’ Ḥaḍrāt ’Abū ’l-Muẓaffar Shahābu-’ddin Muḥammad Shāh Jahān, Ṣāhib-i Qirān-i Thānī, Pādishāh Ghāzī Ẓillu’llah, Firdaws Āshiyānē, Shāhenshāhe-Sulṭānātu ’l-Hindiyyah wa-’l-Mughaliyyah] Persianized-Arabic:
شَاهَنْشَاه ٱلْسُّلْطَانُ ٱلْأَعْظَم وَٱلْخَاقَنُ ٱلْمُكَرَّمُ مَالِكُ ٱلْسُّلْطَنَات عَلَى حَضْرَات أَبو ٱلْمُظَفَّر شَهَابُ ٱلْدِّين مُحَمَّد شَاه جَهَان صَاحِبِ قِرَانِ ٱلْثَّانِي پَادِشَاه غَازِى ظِلُّ ٱلله فِرْدَوس آشِيَانَه شَاهَنْشَاهِ سُلْطَنَاتُ ٱلْهِنْدِيَّه وَٱلْمُغَالِيَّه
2) Jahan Panah/ Jahaan Panaah or (translit.) Jahān Panāh (جَهَان پَنَاه) meaning from the pure Persian: "Realm/ World/ Cosmos/ Universe of Refuge/ Protection" (literary: "Protector of the Universe")
3) Azam Panah/ A'azwam Panaah or (translit.) ’A‘aẓam Panāh (أَعْظَم پَنَاه) meaning from the Arabic-Persian: "The Great or Most Mighty of Refuge/ Protection" (literary honorific: "The Great or Most Mighty of the Universe")
This title means giver of peace (Persian: Panāh - پَنَاه) also "refuge/ protector", or the giver of refuge to the world (Persian, formerly Arabic: Alam/ pure Persian: Jahan/ Persian, formerly Arabic: Azam).
Al-Sultan-Al-Azam (As-Sulṭānu ’l-’A‘aẓam)
Al-Sultan-Al-Azam/ As-Sultwaanu-’l-’A‘azwam or (translit.) As-Sulṭānu ’l-’A‘aẓam (السُّلْطَانُ ٱلْأَعْظَمُ) is a Persianized Arabic imperial title meaning from the Arabic: "The Great or Most Mighty of Authority/ Sovereign/ Dominion". "Al - أَل" is an Arabic definite article meaning 'the', while Sultan (سُلْطَان) is a Persianized Arabic title (literally meaning Authority/ Sovereign/ Dominion) for autonomous rulers since the Abbasid era of Islamic history, while Azam (أَعْظَم), another Arabic word, means "Great or Most Mighty". The title was used by the early rulers of the Mughal Empire such as Babur, Humayun, Jahangir and Shah Jahan.
Padishah-e-Ghazi/ Paadishaah-e Ghaazi or (translit.) Pādishāhe-Ghāzī', literary meaning of the Perso-Arabic imperial title: "Conqueror of Emperors". Padishah (پَادِشَاه) is a Persian title meaning "Emperor/ Monarch/ Ruler" (literally meaning Lord or Master of Kings), often translated as Emperor, while Ghazi (غَازِى) meant in Arabic "conqueror" or an Islamic warrior.
This imperial title means "The Lord of the Auspicious Conjunction (صَاحِبِ قِرَان)" in Persianized Arabic and refers to a ruler whose horoscope features a particular conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn, portending a reign of world-conquest and justice.
Formerly adopted from the Arabic, meaning "Companion/ Associate of (the) Conjunction [literary: apparent proximity of two heavenly bodies]" - explained in the next paragraph, whereas the Arabic words: 'ṣāḥib' - صَاحِبِ' meaning "companion/ associate" and 'qirān - قِرَان' meaning "conjunction of two heavenly bodies" is the plural of of 'qarn - قَرْن' (literary meaning: 'junction - a point at which two or more things are joined').
The title has a long and varied history among Islamo-Persianate rulers, beginning with the Mongols and Mamluks and further developed under the Timurids. The Mughal emperors Shah Jahan and Akbar Shah II called themselves "Sahib-e Qiran-i Sani - (Arabic: Ṣāḥibi Qirāni Thānī/ Ath-Thānī - صَاحِبِ قِرَانِ ثَانِي\ ٱلْثَانِي)", which means "The Second Lord of Auspicious Conjunction", where "sani" is the adopted Arabic word for the cardinal "(the) second/ next" ["thānī" - ثَانِي]. The first Lord of Conjunction in this formulation is assumed to have been Alexander the Great, but it simultaneously references the progenitor of the Mughals, Timur, who was most famously described as the Sahib-e Qiran by Ibn Khaldun. Timur did not use this title himself, but the court historians of his successors routinely applied this title to him and his successors.
Al Khaqan Al Mukarram
Al-Khaqan Al-Mukarram/ Al-Khaaqaan Al-Mukarram or (translit.) Al-Khāqānu ’l-Mukarram (أَلْخَاقَانُ ٱلْمُكَرَّمُ) meaning the Perso-Arabic title: "Honorable or Generous Khan". Khaqan or Khagan (خَاقَان) adopted from the Mongol ancestral roots of "khan (خَان)" meaning "leader" or "prince" - "descended" was an imperial Perso-Turkic Mongol title, used by the Mughal Emperors to show descent from the Khans. Mukarram (مُکَرَّم) means 'possessor of the honorable or generous' or 'the honorable or the generous', in Urdu adopted from Arabic.
Zillullah (Ẓillu’llah)/ Zwillu'llah
Ẓillu’llah or (translit.) Zwillu’llah (ظِلُّ ٱلله) is an Arabic word-phrase meaning the Shadow or Shade of God (Allah - الله), literally "the Refuge of Allah".
Shahenshah-e-Sultanat Al-Hindiyyah wa Al-Mughaliyyah
Shahenshah-e-Sultanat Al-Hindiyyah wa Al-Mughaliyyah/ Shahenshah-e-Sultanat Al-Hindiyyah wa Al-Mughaliyyah or (translit.) Shāhenshāhe-Sulṭānātu ’l-Hindiyyah wa-’l-Mughaliyyah (شَاهَنْشَاهِ سُلْطَنَاتُ ٱلْهِنْدِيَّه وَٱلْمُغَالِيَّه) is an Persianized Arabic imperial title meaning: "Emperor of the Islamic Sultanate of India and the Mughals (honorific: descendants of the Mongol Khans)".
Firdaus Ashiyani/ Firdaws Aashiyaneh or Firdaws Āshiyānē (فِرْدَوس آشِيَانَه) is an Persianized Arabic imperial title meaning: "Domain of Paradise". "Firdaus - فِرْدَوس" for another word for "heaven" in Arabic, where the adopted English word form is "paradise" and the Persian "Ashiyaneh - آشِيَانَه" meaning "nest" or "domain".