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The capital, Qashan supported a citizen population of agriculturists, craftsmen and tradesmen. Within its castles, clay cooking utensils were discovered, as well as foundries for smelting iron and copper. From 1391 until 1399, Russian river pirates called Pushkin occupied the Duchy. By 1399, Muscovy troops dominated. In 1438-1440 the Khanate of Kazan reabsorbed the area reuniting the Bolghar lands.