Late embryogenesis abundant proteins

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Late Embryogenesis Abundant proteins (LEA proteins) are proteins in animals and plants that protect other proteins from aggregation due to desiccation or osmotic stresses associated with low temperature.[1] LEA proteins were initially discovered accumulating late in embryogenesis of cotton seeds.[2] Although abundant in seeds and pollens, LEA proteins have been found to protect against desiccation, cold, or high salinity in a variety of organisms, including the bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans, nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, Artemia (Brine shrimp), and rotifers.[3][4][5]

LEA proteins function by mechanisms which are distinct from those displayed by heat shock molecular chaperones.[1] Although the causes of LEA protein induction have not yet been determined, conformational changes in transcription factors or integral membrane proteins due to water loss have been suggested.[6] LEA proteins are particularly protective of mitochondrial membranes against dehydration damage.[7]

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  1. ^ a b Goyal, K., Walton, L. J., & Tunnacliffe, A. (2005). "LEA proteins prevent protein aggregation due to water stress". Biochemical Journal. 388 (Part 1): 151–157. PMC 1186703Freely accessible. PMID 15631617. doi:10.1042/BJ20041931. Archived from the original on 2009-08-03. 
  2. ^ Dure L 3rd, Greenway SC, Galau GA (1981). "Developmental biochemistry of cottonseed embryogenesis and germination: changing messenger ribonucleic acid populations as shown by in vitro and in vivo protein synthesis". Biochemistry. 20 (14): 4162–4168. PMID 7284317. doi:10.1021/bi00517a033. 
  3. ^ Gal TZ, Glazer I, Koltai H (2004). "An LEA group 3 family member is involved in survival of C. elegans during exposure to stress". FEBS Letters. 577 (1–2): 21–26. PMID 15527756. doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2004.09.049. 
  4. ^ Menze MA, Boswell L, Toner M, Hand SC (2009). "Occurrence of mitochondria-targeted Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) gene in animals increases organelle resistance to water stress". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 284 (16): 10714–10719. PMC 2667758Freely accessible. PMID 19228698. doi:10.1074/jbc.C900001200. 
  5. ^ Hundertmark M, Hincha DK (2008). "LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) proteins and their encoding genes in Arabidopsis thaliana". BMC Genomics. 9: 118. PMC 2292704Freely accessible. PMID 18318901. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-9-118. 
  6. ^ Caramelo JJ, Iusem ND (2009). "When cells lose water: Lessons from biophysics and molecular biology". Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology. 99 (1): 1–6. PMID 18977383. doi:10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2008.10.001. 
  7. ^ Tolleter D, Hincha DK, Macherel D (2010). "A mitochondrial late embryogenesis abundant protein stabilizes model membranes in the dry state". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1798 (10): 1926–1933. PMID 20637181. doi:10.1016/j.bbamem.2010.06.029.