Manducatio impiorum

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Manducatio impiorum ("eating by the impious") or manducatio indignorum ("eating by the unworthy") is the view, held by Martin Luther and Philipp Melanchthon, but denied by Huldrych Zwingli and John Calvin, that even unbelievers who eat and drink the Eucharist physically eat and drink the body and blood of Christ.[1][2][3] Calvin believed that Christ's body is given to all communicants, but only received by those who have faith.[4] It relates to doctrine of the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, and, in particular, to the interpretation of 1 Corinthians 11:27-29:

Therefore, whoever eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner will be guilty of sinning against the body and blood of the Lord. A man ought to examine himself before he eats of the bread and drinks of the cup. For anyone who eats and drinks without recognizing the body of the Lord eats and drinks judgment on himself.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Westminster Dictionary of Theological Terms
  2. ^ John Schofield, Philip Melanchthon and the English Reformation, pp. 38 ff.
  3. ^ Phillip Cary. "Eucharistic Presence in Calvin". 
  4. ^ Gerrish, Brian (2004). The Old Protestantism and the New. ISBN 9780567546579.