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Materialism or materialist may refer to:
- Materialism, the view that the universe consists only of organized matter and energy
- Economic materialism, the desire to accumulate material goods
- Christian materialism, the combination of Christian theology with the ideas of materialism, which places a high value on material things.
- Cultural materialism (anthropology), an anthropological research orientation first introduced by Marvin Harris
- Cultural materialism (cultural studies), a movement in literary theory and cultural studies originating with left-wing literary critic Raymond Williams
- Historical materialism, a theory of socioeconomic development most commonly associated with Marxism, where changes in material conditions (technology and productive capacity) are the primary influences on how human society is organized
- Dialectical materialism, a component of Marxism which proposes that every economic order develops internal contradictions and weaknesses that contribute to its systemic decay
- Spiritual materialism, a misuse of spiritual practice which seeks to subvert spiritual experiences to inflate the sense of self or egohood (a term coined by Chögyam Trungpa).
- Philosophical materialism a sort of materialism which rejects physical reductivism and excludes any possibility of spiritual life without reference to organic life.
- "Materialist", song by Paul Dessau