The micro-pulling-down (µ-PD) method is a crystal growth technique based on continuous transport of the melted substance through micro-channel(s) made in a crucible bottom. Continuous solidification of the melt is progressed on a liquid/solid interface positioned under the crucible. In a steady state, both the melt and the crystal are pulled-down with a constant (but generally different) velocity.
Crystal growth routine
Standard routine procedure used in the growth of most of µ-PD crystals is well developed. The general stages of the growths include:
- charging of the crucible with starting materials (mixture of powders),
- heating of the crucible until starting materials in the crucible are completely melted,
- upward displacement of the seed until its contact with the meniscus or crucible,
- formation of the meniscus and partial melting of the seed top,
- correction of the shape of the meniscus through appropriate adjustment of crucible temperature and position of the seed crystal,
- crystal growth through pulling of the seed in downward direction,
- separation of the as grown crystal from the meniscus,
- and cooling of the system (including the crystal and the crucible) to room temperature
- Crystal growth
- Czochralski process
- Float-zone silicon
- Verneuil process
- Laser-heated pedestal growth
- Flux method
- Yttrium aluminium garnet
- Scandium(III) oxide
- Lithium niobate
- Fukuda, Tsuguo; Chani, Valery I (2007). T. Fukuda and V.I. Chani, eds. Shaped Crystals: Growth by Micro-Pulling-Down Technique. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3-540-71294-1.
- Yoshikawa, A.; Nikl, M.; Boulon, G.; Fukuda, T. (2007). "Challenge and study for developing of novel single crystalline optical materials using micro-pulling-down method". Opt. Mater. 30 (1): 6–10. Bibcode:2007OptMa..30....6Y. doi:10.1016/j.optmat.2006.10.030.
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