Millennium Cohort Study (United States)
The Millennium Cohort Study is an ongoing longitudinal cohort study headquartered at the Naval Health Research Center in San Diego, California and designed to evaluate any long-term health effects of military service, including deployments. It is the largest population-based prospective health project in US military history, currently collecting data on over 200,000 enrolled participants. Investigators that conduct the Millennium Cohort Study include uniformed and non-uniformed scientists from the Army, Navy, Air Force, Department of Veterans Affairs and academic institutions.
After the 1991 Gulf War, the United States Department of Defense recognized the need to collect prospective exposure and health information that may be associated with the long-term health of service members . The Millennium Cohort Study was designed to address that need. Pilot studies were conducted in 2000; by mid-2001, the Millennium Cohort Study's first enrollment period was launched, collecting baseline data from over 77,000 people.
The most methodologically rigorous epidemiological study on American military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan  is funded by the US Department of Defense , and supported by military, United States Department of Veterans Affairs, and civilian researchers. Over 200,000 military personnel are members of the cohort. The Millennium Cohort Study began with a random sample of US Military members including active duty, Reserve, and National Guard members from all services. Surveys are sent to this representative sample of US military personnel every three years through email and the United States Postal Service, requesting that they submit their data online or via the mail service. Approximately 25% of Millennium Cohort participants have left military service and the study will continue to follow all participants through their Active duty, Reserve, National Guard careers and civilian endeavors.
Prospective data analyses are underway to assess health outcomes including Suicide , Posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, hypertension, respiratory symptoms and illness, immune responses, chronic multi-symptom illness, CHD and CVD, and modifiable health behaviors such as smoking, alcohol use, sleep, and physical activity that may be associated with deployment in support of the current wars. Currently, more than 60% of Millennium Cohort participants have deployed in support of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.
In 2011 the Millennium Cohort Study was expanded to include 10,000 spouses of Millennium Cohort members.The sub study, The Millennium Cohort Family Study's goal is to gain a more complete understanding of the military experience and its resultant impact on the health and well-being of service members and their families.
- Margaret A.K. Ryan; Tyler C. Smith; Besa Smith; Paul Amoroso; Edward J. Boyko; Gregory C. Gray; Gary D. Gackstetter; James R. Riddle; Timothy S. Wells; Gia Gumbs; Thomas E. Corbeil; Tomoko I. Hooper (2007). "Millennium Cohort: enrollment begins a 21-year contribution to understanding the impact of military service". Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 60 (2): 181–191. doi:10.1016/j.jclinepi.2006.05.009. PMID 17208125. Retrieved 2013-08-15.
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- Cynthia A. LeardMann; Teresa M. Powell; Tyler C. Smith; Michael R. Bell; Besa Smith; Edward J. Boyko; Tomoko I. Hooper; Gary D. Gackstetter; Mark Ghamsary; Charles W. Hoge (2013). "Risk Factors Associated With Suicide in Current and Former US Military Personnel". JAMA. Journal of American Medicine Association. 310 (5): 496–506. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.65164. PMID 23925620. Retrieved 2013-08-15.
- Cynthia A LeardMann, Tyler C Smith, Besa Smith, Timothy S Wells and Margaret A K Ryan for the Millennium Cohort Study Team (2008-12-19). "Baseline self reported functional health and vulnerability to post-traumatic stress disorder after combat deployment: prospective US military cohort study". BMJ. BMJ. 338: b1273. doi:10.1136/bmj.b1273. PMC 2671472. PMID 19372117.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
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- Tyler C. Smith, Deborah L. Wingard, Margaret A.K. Ryan, Donna Kritz-Silverstein, Donald J. Slymen, and James F. Sallis, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team (January 2009). "PTSD Prevalence, Associated Exposures, and Functional Health Outcomes in a Large, Population-Based Military Cohort". Public Health Rep. Association of Schools of Public Health. 124 (1): 90–102. PMC 2602934. PMID 19413031.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
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- Isabel G. Jacobson; Margaret A. K. Ryan; Tomoko I. Hooper; Tyler C. Smith; Paul J. Amoroso; Edward J. Boyko; Gary D. Gackstetter; Timothy S. Wells; Nicole S. Bell (2008-08-13). "Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems Before and After Military Combat Deployment". JAMA. Journal of American Medicine Association. 300 (6): 663–675. doi:10.1001/jama.300.6.663. PMC 2680184. PMID 18698065. Retrieved 2013-08-15.
- Amber D. Seelig, Isabel G. Jacobson, Besa Smith, Tomoko I. Hooper, Edward J. Boyko, Gary D. Gackstetter, Philip Gehrman, Carol A. Macera, Tyler C. Smith for the Millennium Cohort Study Team (2010-12-01). "Sleep Patterns Before, During, and After Deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan". Sleep. 2010 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC. 33 (12): 1615–1622. PMC 2982731. PMID 21120123.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
- Molly L Kelton, Cynthia A LeardMann, Besa Smith, Edward J Boyko, Tomoko I Hooper, Gary D Gackstetter, Paul D Bliese, Charles W Hoge, and Tyler C Smith, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team (2010-10-15). "Exploratory factor analysis of self-reported symptoms in a large, population-based military cohort". BMC Medical Research Methodology. Kelton et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 10: 94. doi:10.1186/1471-2288-10-94. PMC 2967557. PMID 20950474.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
- Matt Pueschel (2010-12-29). "Millennium Cohort Study Expanding To Include Spouses of Service Members". Fhp.osd.mil. Retrieved 2013-08-15.
- Rush T, LeardMann CA, Crum-Cianflone NF. (2016). "Obesity and associated adverse health outcomes among US military members: Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study." Obesity (Silver Spring). 2016 Jul;24(7):1582-9. doi: 10.1002/oby.21513.PMID 27345964 DOI:10.1002/oby.21513
- Riddle JR, Smith TC, Smith B, Corbeil TE, Engel CC, Wells TS, Hoge CW, Adkins J, Zamorski M, Blazer D for the Millennium Cohort Study Team. (2007). "Millennium Cohort: The 2001–2003 baseline prevalence of mental disorders in the U.S. Military". Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 60 (2): 192–201. doi:10.1016/j.jclinepi.2006.04.008. PMID 17208126.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
- Tyler C Smith, Mark Zamorski, Besa Smith, James R Riddle, Cynthia A LeardMann, Timothy S Wells, Charles C Engel, Charles W Hoge, Joyce Adkins, Dan Blaze and the Millennium Cohort Study Team (2007). "The physical and mental health of a large military cohort: Baseline functional health status of the Millennium Cohort". BMC Public Health. 7: 340. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-7-340. PMC 2212642. PMID 18039387.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
- Tyler C Smith, Margaret A K Ryan, Deborah L Wingard, Donald J Slymen, James F Sallis, and Donna Kritz-Silverstein for the Millennium Cohort Study Team (2008). "New onset and persistent symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder self reported after deployment and combat exposures: Prospective population based US military cohort study". BMJ. 336 (7640): 366–71. doi:10.1136/bmj.39430.638241.AE. PMC 2244768. PMID 18198395.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)