Endoscopic spinal surgery

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Endoscopic spinal surgery is any minimally invasive endoscopic surgery of the spine. Minimally-invasive surgery aims to reduce tissue trauma and bleeding, risk of infection, and to improve the healing process of the body.[1]

It can often be performed percutaneously using incisions of less than 15 mm. Endoscopic surgery can be carried out using an image intensifier and navigation assistance. In order to avoid damage to blood vessels, nerves and organs, the use of anatomical safe corridors (Kambin's triangle) are advised.[2]

Percutaneous endoscopic surgery is the main area of endoscopic spinal surgery. It is defined and reported first time independently by Dr Parviz Kambin (United States) and Dr.Sadahisa Hijikata (Japan) in 1973. Dr Kambin defined safe triangle which is called his name. Following these authors Dr Schreiber at all (Hansjörg Leu, Suezawa) used an arthroscope into the intervertebral disc and reported their experience as titled "discoscopy" in 1989. Endoscopic spine surgery was popularized in worldwide then followed by pioneers of MISS. Dr Antony Yeung (USA) was created special instrument in order previous experience. The instrument is called "Yeung Endoscopic Spine System=YESS) It is produced by Wolf. Simultaneously Dr Matin Knight (UK) created (Knight Instrument Spine system=KISS) is manufactured my EKL, Dr Hansjörg Leu (Swiss) designed Leu discoscope and manufactured by Storz, Dr Thomas Hoogland (Germany) also designed his own instruments with different compaines. Most Recently there is various devices available in the market with different companies in the basis of Kambin technique.

Minimal invasive spine communities was founded by the pioneers such as ISMISS, WCMIST, PASMISS, IMLAS, ITSS, Wenmiss and AAMISS. ISMISS is one of the former society which is founded by Kambin, Schrieber at all in Zurich.


  1. ^ "Minimally Invasive Endoscopic Spinal Surgery". June 20, 2005. Cleveland Clinic contribution to SpineUniverse.com
  2. ^ Guidelines of Endoscopic Spine Surgery