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For the spasmolytic Modulon, see Modulon_(drug).

An operon is a set of genes controlled by a single DNA-binding protein. Multiple operons controlled by the same regulatory protein are grouped together as a regulon. A modulon is a regulon concerned with multiple pathways or functions, in which operons may be under individual controls as well as common, pleiotropic regulatory protein.

For example, the CAP modulon contains all regulons/operons, such as the lac operon and ara regulon, that are regulated by CAP/cAMP, but each operon has other regulators as well.