Objects of cultural heritage in Poland
In light of Polish law, the "zabytek" is defined as "immovable or movable items, their parts of elements, which are a creation of man or its byproduct, and giving a testament to the past epoch or event, and whose preservation is in the social interest due to their historical, artistic or scientific nature." In more general terms, "zabytek" concerns movable and immovable items, including those recognized as valuable by the state or other institutions, and in more colloquial language, those recognized as such by individuals.
Classification by type
The cultural heritage is officially classified into three categories: movable heritage objects, nonmovable heritage objects, archaeological heritage objects.
- buildings or other individual constructions such as public art or memorials that have significant cultural value.
- Group of buildings that constitutes a coherent unit, regardless of individual value, such as a cultural landscape or cityscape.
- Park of cultural importance, including natural monuments such as valuable trees, group of trees (park, forest, lane, etc.) or a boulder.
Classification by form of recognition
Objects are recognized as cultural heritage protected by law in four ways:
- if an object is added to the register of objects of cultural heritage (Rejestr zabytków)
- if the heritage assigned a special status of Historic Monument (Pomnik historii); see List of Historic Monuments (Poland) for a complete list
- if the object is classified as a cultural park (Park kulturowy)
- if a local government declares the object in need of protection
- Culture of Poland
- National Heritage Site
- World Heritage Sites of Poland
- List of Historic Monuments (Poland)
- zabytki is plural; singular version of the word is zabytek
- The term zabytek has no direct English equivalent. While it is on occasion translated as a (historical) monument, relic, heritage or masterpiece, it encompass a wider range of concepts associated with cultural heritage. Kozłowska notes that the word zabytek "means diverse things in Polish: buildings, perhaps also statues and monuments (immovables); works such as paintings, smaller sculptures, religious paraphernalia, etc. (movables); or the whole body of treasures of all kinds that come down to a nation from a past; or simply something valuable that survived from the past." She further notes that on many occasions, translations such as "architectural gems", "art treasures", "ancient monuments", and related ones can be appropriate, depending on context.
- Gregor Thum (8 August 2011). Uprooted: How Breslau Became Wroclaw during the Century of Expulsions. Princeton University Press. p. 452. ISBN 1-4008-3996-3.
- Christian Douglas Kozłowska (1 January 1998). Difficult Words in Polish-English Translation. Wydawn. Naukowe PWN. pp. 160–164. ISBN 978-83-01-12439-7.
- Christian Douglas Kozłowska (1 January 1998). Difficult Words in Polish-English Translation. Wydawn. Naukowe PWN. p. 158. ISBN 978-83-01-12439-7.
- (Polish) Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa: About the Institute
- Ustawa z dnia 23 lipca 2003 r. o ochronie zabytków i opiece nad zabytkami, Dz. U. z 2003 r. Nr 162, poz. 1568
- Definition of immoveable zabytek with lists
- Catalogue of monuments of art in Poland
- Definition of moveable zabytek
- Definition of archeological zabytek
- Bogusław Szmygin (2000). Kształtowanie koncepcji zabytku i doktryny konserwatorskiej w Polsce w XX wieku (in Polish). Wydaw. Politechniki Lubelskiej. ISBN 978-83-88110-62-7.
- Marian Arszyński (2007). Idea - pamięć - troska: rola zabytków w przestrzeni społecznej i formy działań na rzecz ich zachowania od starożytności do połowy XX wieku (in Polish). Muzeum Zamkowe. ISBN 978-83-60518-09-0.
- Bohdan Rymaszewski (1992). Klucze ochrony zabytków w Polsce (in Polish). Ośrodek Dokumentacji Zabytków.
- Bohdan Rymaszewski (2002). Polska ochrona zabytków: refleksje z lat 1918 - 2002 (in Polish). Bohdan Rymaszewski. ISBN 978-83-918245-1-1.