Odh (also written 'Od' or 'Oad') (pronounced [oᶑ]: Hindi: odh) are a Rajput community and a tribe with origins in Sindh and Punjab in Pakistan and Rajasthan in India. The tribe has a distinct and unique history dating back thousands of years. They are considered to be of Rajput origin. However, not much is documented about this tribe. One of the earliest reference to Odhs is found in the 18th century poetry of Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai, who has praised Ods for their hard work and simplicity.
There are a number of traditions of the origin of this tribe. One of tradition relates to an ancestor by the name of Bhagirat. Bhagirat vowed never to drink twice from the same well, and so he dug a fresh well everyday until one day he dug down and never came up. In honour of this ancestor, the Oad took to working as navvies. According to another tradition, the ancestor of the Oad was Odang, a king of Orisa. They then migrated from Orissa to Rajasthan, and from their migrated to Sindh and Punjab. They claim their original name was Sagarbansi.
DISTRIBUTION The Ods are a large community spread over a large region with concentrations in Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Delhi, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Haryana in India and in Sindh and Punjab in Pakistan. The Oads have been nomads for centuries since Mughals ruled South Asia, and were known in the South Asia as indigenous civil engineers, constructors of ponds, walls, structures, canals and embankments. In Punjab, they are most numerous in Lahore, and along the lower Indus and Chenab, especially around the city of Multan.
Language Those in Sindh, Haryana, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Delhi and Rajasthan speak their own language called Oadki, which resembles Marathi and Gujarati with borrowings from Marwari and Punjabi. The Od of Punjab, Pakistan speak Punjabi, while those of Haryana speak Haryanvi.
Religion The Hindu Oads are Shivites, and worship Shiva, as oppose to other Punjab tribes that are Vaishnavi. While those of Rajasthan, Haryana and Gujarat follow a number of local deities, as well as being Shivite. Oads mainly worship their ancestors and lighten ”Diya” on every Thursday.
Current situation The independence of Pakistan and India has effectively divided the Odh in two distinct communities. In Pakistan, the Oads are Hindu, with the exception some Muslim Odhs in Sindh.
In Pakistan The Odh community in Pakistan remain associated with the building trade. A recent study made the following discovery: Narain Das Oad has played an important role in the history of the Odh of Sindh. He was born in the small town of Phulpoto in the upper Sindh near the town of Ratodero in Larkana District. He became the first graduate of Oad tribe in Sindh, and went on to become a lawyer and eventually a Judicial Magistrate.
New Delhi In Delhi, Chetan Mal Japlot,also played an important role in the history of Odh. He was born in Sindh in the small town of Larkana. He completed Civil Engineering and went to Delhi reached top position – Chief Engineer-(Civil) in New Delhi the community claim to be Suryavanshi Rajputs, who emigrated from Marwar. They are found mainly in Mehrauli, Dakshin Puri, Sanjay Colony and Bhatti Mines neighbourhoods. Their main clans in Delhi are the Dewat, Panwar, Bhatti, Khambra, Sisodia, Majoka, Gadai (Bhatia), Shrawan, (Rathod) Rathore, Sirkiband, Chauhan, Kudawala (Bhatti) and Galgat. The community maintain its traditional occupation of digging canals or working in mines.They were involved in making sirki or chhappar in past time also and were called Sirkiband oad. They are an extremely marginal community, and child labour is fairly prevalent.
In Rajasthan In Rajasthan, the Oad claim descent from a Rajput king, by the name Sagar. They are found mainly in Alwar and Sri Ganganagar districts and divided into number of exogamous clans, namely the Kudawla, Gondli (Gondley), Beeka, Soora, Kalhiya (Tanwar), Udesi, Galgat, Mudai, Gadai, Shrawan, Majoka, Yodha, Mangal, Nahar, Gagwani, Lola and Japlot. They are largely engaged in digging earth, construction of roads,Farming and masonry work. The Oad rajput speak Oadki among themselves and Hindi with outsiders, and are Vishnavi Hindus.
In Haryana In Haryana, the Oad mainly found in Panchkula, Hisar, Balawas village, Tohana, Ratia, Fathehabad, Sirsa, Panipat, Sonipat, Hansi, Karnal, Kaithal, Faridabad, Gurgaon and other parts of Haryana. In the History of Haryana Politic only Sh.Gyan Chand Galgat, who has been elected MLA twice from ”Ratia” Constituency from [2004 to 2009] and again in . In District Hisar village namely ”HAZAMPUR” 80% Oad Community resides in Tohana and also in many villages. In Haryana, the Education Level and living standard has increased too much but still more improvement needs.Apart from above the prominent personality in Od community Sh.Lakhu Ram Majoka was migrated from village Khatlabana(Sri Ganaganagar)and settled in a forest area near village Shakerpura, tehsil-Tohana in 1950. he died in 1980. But the small village is known by his name LAKHU WALI DHANI. After his death his family members left the village and settled in Hisar(Haryana). .
In Punjab In Punjab, according to the traditions of the Odh community, they are Rajputs of Udaipur, and were originally known as Ude, which became corrupted to Odh. Most of the East Punjab Odh have immigrated from territory that became Pakistan in 1947. They are found mainly in the districts of Ferozepur, Sangrur and Bhatinda. There traditional occupation was earthwork, digging wells and construction of roads. The community is endogamous, and maintain clan exogamy. There main clans are the Hadola Dao, Hansi, Chitada, Mahdwara, Tehil and Mikrani. A number of Oad families of the Shrawan, Chauhan, Yodha clans have established themselves in Union Territory of Chandigarh’.
In Gujarat in Gujarat (India) according to their traditional they claim that own self to ’rajput’.in present due to ’jashmadevi’ they work as buildar so they also called beldar.in bhuki (a great oad woman was die own self for the self-respect ) the shati is very popular oad cast give their bali fulfill their wants. In Andhra Pradesh & Maharastra In Andhra Pradesh, the Oad mainly found in Adilabad, Nizamabad and karimnagar while in maharastra mainly found in Nagpur, kinwat and yeotmal and pusad and mumbai also. JASMA DEVI
The Jasma devi temple constructed by ode tribe in 12th century situated at ’ sahastralinga talav ’ tank at Pattan, near Baroda in Gujarat State, India.
Story of Jasma Devi Jasma of the Od, who was married to a simple pond-digger man called ’Rooda’, from his tribe. She is remembered for her loyalty to her husband, for fearless conduct on the face of the King Siddhraj Jaisingh and for her love of the rugged life of the nomadic odes. The King Siddhraj Jaisingh’s chanced to see Jasma and described what he saw. when he returned to the Court. The king has to see the dazzling beauty again. When he did, he was captivated by her beauty and offered to marry her to make her the queen of Gujarat. Jasma looked him in disdain, spurned his offer and rebuked him for having cherished such evil thoughts. she refused Siddharaj’s advances and committed sati to protect her honour. It is believed that her curse made the tank waterless and the king without an heir to the kingdom of Gujarat. Thus protecting her dignity. The Jasma Devi Temple was constructed in her memory near a tank called ’Sahasra linga Talav’ located near Pattan, Gujarat in 12th century. 
Sahasra lingam Talav The Sahasra lingam Talav tank are among the many artificial tanks built in different parts of Gujarat under the patronages of Siddhraj Jaisingh (1093-1143 AD). The architecture of this tank integrated the great sense of water management and sanctity of water in Hindu religion. The tank used to receive water from a canal of the Saraswati River and had spread of about 5 km with good stone masonry embankments. There were thousand Shiva Shrines on the edge of the tank. Some remains of the same are even visible today. Looking at the ruins, one can imagine the grandeur of this great water tank. The famous legend of Siddhraj Jaisingh’s desire for ’Jasma Odan’ a beautiful married woman of the tank digger’s community, revolved around this tank in an indecent proposal. She refused to marry him and committed sati to protect her honour.
Theatre Performance of JASMA ODHAN Jasma Odhan is a musical, full of humour, joy & drama based on Bhavai, the Gujarati folk form written by Shanta Gandhi. This famous Bhavai is the tale of Jasma, the earthly incarnation of a heavenly apsara, Kaamkundala.
Jasma is a female member of the Odh community of Gujarat. The Odhs are labourers. Jasmas character highlights the theme of the play, Dignity of Labour & Womanhood. The two major characters Rangla and Nayak, like Sutradhars take us through the journey of Jasmas life, giving us a glimpse of this very colourful Indian folk style, Bhavai. The live music adds to the visual magic created by the performers. The Gujarati folk songs and dances give the typical rural and earthen feel. Each song is an original Bhavai composition. From the apsara to the Odh community, the costumes are immaculate and authentically designed. The script of Jasma Odhan holds the brilliant craft of excellent balance between humour, tension, dramatic conflict and the profundity. Jasma Odhan in all aspects is Purely Indian in its entertainment value. • A Hindi Movie – Sati Jasma Odan (1976) By Actress Meena Kumari.