Pax Iulia or Colonia Civitas Pacensis was a city in the Roman province of Lusitania, today Beja, Portugal. Already inhabited in Celtic times around 400 BC, there are indications of a Carthaginian presence, and the city is mentioned by Polybius and Claudius Ptolemy in the second century BC. It was renamed Pax Iulia, "peace of the gens Julia", by Julius Caesar in 48 BC after peace was made with the Lusitani. The town became a capital of a conventus iuridicus, Pacensis, in the province of Lusitania, as it was situated at a strategic road junction, with connection to Myrtilis Iulia, a harbor city in the Guadiana river.
Sometime between 31 and 27 BC, during the reign of the emperor Augustus, the city was granted the municipium following the Battle of Actium. The colonists were ascribed to the gens Galeria. A new designation, Pax Augusta (peace of Augustus), appears at this time, as mentioned by Strabo,
Archeology has uncovered the remains of a large Roman temple (30 x 19.4 metres) from the first century AD located on the city forum, several inscriptions, Roman arches, fortifications and an aqueduct. Possible locations for the Theater and Amphitheater were deduced from the current urban layout.
Roman artefacts; Museu da Rainha D. Leonor; Beja, Portugal
Roman oil lamps; Museu da Rainha D. Leonor; Beja, Portugal
Terra sigillata (ceramic ware made of porous clay fired at low heat); Museu da Rainha D. Leonor; Beja, Portugal.
- António Marques de Faria, Papers by António. "Sobre a data da fundação de Pax Iulia (António Marques de Faria) - Academia.edu". Independent.academia.edu. Retrieved 2011-11-02.
- António Marques de Faria, Papers by António. "De novo em torno da fundação de Pax Iulia: um exercício de "controversismo" (António Marques de Faria) - Academia.edu". Independent.academia.edu. Retrieved 2011-11-02.
- AEIOU - Investimentos Multimédia, S.A. "Arqueologia Templo romano descoberto em Beja é o maior de Portugal e um dos maiores da Península Ibérica - Expresso.pt". Aeiou.expresso.pt. Retrieved 2011-11-02.
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