|This article needs additional citations for verification. (May 2012)|
|• Municipal Chairperson||Kuriakose Padavan|
|• Total||15.93 km2 (6.15 sq mi)|
|Elevation||56.7 m (186.0 ft)|
|• Density||1,375/km2 (3,560/sq mi)|
|• Official||Malayalam, English|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|PIN||686574 , 686575|
|Telephone code||9148 22|
|Vehicle registration||KL 35|
|Official Website||Official Site|
Pala (Malayalam: പാലാ, also written as Palai), is a municipal town 28 km east of Kottayam in the Indian state of Kerala, spread over an area of 15.93 km2. It is situated 173 km North from the state capital Thiruvananthapuram, on the banks of the Meenachil River and is the headquarters of the Meenachil Taluk and the Pala Revenue Division. It is the one of the main gateways to the southern high ranges of Western Ghats. Pala connects to highranges through Thodupuzha and Kanjirappally taluks.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography and climate
- 4 Religious places
- 5 Trade links
- 6 Healthcare, hospitals
- 7 Closest cities, towns and villages
- 8 Culture and people
- 9 Cuisine
- 10 Notable Persons
- 11 Journalist
- 12 Education
- 13 Pala Municipal Stadium
- 14 Coaching Centers in Pala
- 15 Demographics
- 16 A Rare Social Model
- 17 Records and Achievements
- 18 Pala Related Websites
- 19 See also
- 20 References
There are various versions regarding the origin of the place name. According to one, early Christian settlers from Kottayam (near Chavakad in today's Thrissur district), who settled down in Meenachil on the other side of the Meenachil River, named the place as Pala - a shortened form of Palayoor. Another view is that the name was derived from Palathu families, the prominent early settlers of the region. Another version is that Pala gets its name from Palazhi (Ksheera Sagara), the mythological Ocean of milk from which nectar was churned out. But there are no supportive explanation why or how this place is connected with the Puranic ocean of milk.
Pala was part of the erstwhile princely state of Travancore, and was ruled by the "Travancore Rajas" for a long time.before the annexation to Travancore The local chieftains were "Meenachil Karthas". The first royal Kartha families were known as Njavakattu Karthas. They had a title called "Damodara Simhar" and they were rulers of a small kingdom called "Meenachil" which is today's Palai (Kottayam district),they were related to the ancient Pandya race and believed to have some Rajput connection also their "kula Devatha" is "Ambadevi".
They ruled Meenachil taluk and were instrumental in promoting the Christian settlement in this place. Later they were defeated by the Travancore army of Dharma Raja (successor of Marthanda Varma) and their kingdom was annexed to Travancore (the ruling king committed suicide). All their male folks including boys were slaughtered. However, the ladies were spared. Also, the Travancore king gave them pension. The family had a successor only after a very long gap due to this genocide by the Travancore forces.
Early settlements in the region date back to 1000 AD. Christian settlers came to the area very early, probably at the invitation of the local rulers. According to reliable historical sources The first four Christian families are considered to be Tharayil (Tharayil Mappila)Koottumkal (brother of Tharayil Mappila) Erakonni & Vayalakombil. They were engaged mainly in agriculture and trade. It is believed that Pala market was established around 1736 on the banks of Meenachil River by Christian settlers on the land allotted by Meenachil Karthas, who were the local rulers.
Geography and climate
Transportation Pala is on the Main Eastern Highway (Muvattupuzha - Pathanamthitta- Punalur Road / SH - 08). The state highway 'SH-32' (Ettumanoor to Poonjar) also passes through Pala. Atpresent nearest railway station of Pala is Kottayam which is 28 km away. Pala Railway station is santioned through the construction started Angamaily- Sabarimala new railway line.
St.Mary's Shrine(Jubilee Shrine) also Known as Pala Kurishupally a shrine located at the centre of the Pala town, acts as the landmark of the town. St. Thomas Syro-Malabar Catholic Cathedral, Pala and St. Mary's Syro-Malabar Catholic Church, Lalam are two of the main Syrian Catholic churches in Pala.
A famous pilgrim centre nearby is the Alphonsa Church at Bharananganam, where the mortal remains of St. Alphonsa of India are kept. Adjacent to it is St. Mary's Syro-Malabar Catholic Church of Bharananganam which was founded in 1002. St. George's Syro-Malabar Catholic Church, Aruvithura is also a famous pilgrim centre. Another Christian pilgrim centre near Pala is the St. Augustine's Syro-Malabar Catholic Church at Ramapuram, where the mortal remains of the Blessed Thevarparampil Kunjachan are kept. Monastery of Mutholy was founded by Blessed Kuriakose Elias Chavara.
St.Thomas Church at Arunapuram is one of the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church which has the largest number of convents in Pala Diocese.Two main colleges of Pala comes under the area of this church.
Though Pala has been a traditional stronghold of the Syro Malabar Catholic Christians, who are generally very conservative in faith and beliefs, the town has, of late witnessed the emergence of a few Evangelical/ Pentecostal churches in and around the region. Few Latin Catholic churches can also be seen in the place. The other denominations of the Syrian Christians are largely absent in Pala.
There are 11 temples in Pala Municipality. Among them Lalam Mahadeva Temple is among the most famous and is called Dakshina Kasi (Kasi of South). Lalam Mahadeva Temple is situated at the heart of Pala town on the bank of Lalam River. Kadappattor Mahadeva Temple which is situated on the bank of Meenachil River is the most famous Hindu temple in this region. Kizhathadiyoor Puthiyakavu Devi Temple, Chembittambalam Kizhathadiyoor Thrukkayil Mahadeva Temple, Murikkumpuzha Devi Temple, Idayattu Bala Ganapathy Temple, Narasimha Swami Temple, Vellappattu Sree Vana Durga Bhagavathy Temple, Thattarakathu Bhagavathy Temple, Ooraasala Subrahmanya Swami Temple and Anakkulangara Bhagavathy Temple, Kochidappady Sree Shanmugha swami Temple,Payappar sree dhrma shatha teemple payappar, are the other temples situated within the boundaries of Pala Municipality.
Pala had trade links Tamil Nadu, and even countries in the Middle East. A jungle route to Gudalloor in Tamil Nadu, through the dense forests in the High Ranges, is believed to have brought a significant number of Vellalas and Chettiars during the Middle Ages. During the early 1900s Pala became famous for its spice market. A particular brand of pepper called "Pala Pepper" was quoted in the London market in the early 1900s. Once rubber took a firm root in Central Kerala, Pala became a rubber market.
A road linking Athirampuzha to Erattupetta through Pala was established in 1868. Pala was linked to Thodupuzha by road in 1893. Motor vehicles appeared in Pala in the early 1900s. The first bus service was started in 1908 by a public company by name Meenachil Motor Association which was the 3rd registered company in Travancore.
Pala became a Municipality in 1949.
The Meenachil River flows through the taluks of Meenachil, Vaikom and Kottayam. It is formed by several streams originating from the Western Ghats in Idukki district. At Erattupeetta, Poonjar River also joins it, takes a sharp turn and flows towards the west. At Kondur, it is joined by the Chittar and at Lalam it receives the Payuapparathodu and flows in a south- west direction till it reaches Kottayam. Here, it branches into several streams before emptying into the Vembanad Lake. The important towns in the basin are Pala, Poonjar, Ettumanoor and Kottayam.
Palai Central Bank
Pala dominated the banking and financial scene of Kerala for over three decades (1927–60) through Palai Central Bank. Started in 1927 by Joseph Augusti Kayalackakom, it grew up to become the largest business enterprise of Kerala, and the 17th largest among the 94 scheduled commercial banks in India. The daring initiatives of this small-town-bank included the opening of a branch in India's new capital New Delhi in 1932, the first Bank to open a branch in the newly built city. During the 3-decade period of its dominant presence, the Bank played a major role in the growth of Pala town too, including using its influence to bring the Municipality, Catholic Diocese, St Thomas College and other institutions to Pala, beating the claims of some of the other bigger and older towns nearby.
The Bank was liquidated in 1960 on the orders of Kerala High Court in response to a petition made by the Reserve Bank of India(RBI). In the published history of RBI a 27-page appendix (Appendix C: The Palai Central Bank) extensively covers the history of the Bank. In it Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru is quoted as saying that RBI made a "mistake" in closing down the Palai Central Bank.
Kizhathadiyoor Service Co-operative bank Ltd no.1955 is one of the largest banking institutions in the co-operative sector,in the state of Kerala.The bank had its humble beginning in the year 1934 with a share capital base of RS.125/- contributed by 18 members.The noble object behind the formation of the society was to improve the economic and social status of the society members and formulate and implement schemes to encourage thrift,self help and cooperation among members. The bank is the largest co-operative banking in the Meenachil Taluk of the district of Kottayam. The bank has core banking, atm, net banking, telebanking foreigh exchange, neft/rtgs facilities. Kisco bank presently diversified its area of operation and deals with neethi medical shops, diagonostic centres, ambulance services, ultra scan, ct scan, dialysis centres, mamaogram, dental units, x ray facilities furniture marts, fish market, agro shops, kisco milk, farm tourism, paliative care units, blood doners forum, working women's hostel, saphalam 55+, farmers club etc. The bank is headed by Adv.George C Kappen who recently received the award for the Best Cooperative bank in Kerala.
- Govt. General Hospital, Pala
- Marian medical center, Arunapuram
- Cherupushpam Trust Hospital, Pala
- Carmel Hospital, Pala
Closest cities, towns and villages
Culture and people
Palai is one of the main Christian cultural centers in Kerala. Population of Palai is predominantly Saint Thomas Christians who trace their origins to the evangelistic activity of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century.
Appam and Stew is a favorite breakfast dish of Syrian Christians. Appams, kallappams, or vellayappams are rice flour pancakes which have soft, thick white spongy centres and crisp, lace-like edges.
Stews are prepared by gently simmering meat, potatoes and onions in a creamy white sauce flavoured with black pepper, cinnamon, cloves, green chillies, lime juice, shallots and coconut milk. Meat used is either chicken,mutton, duck or beef. Cassava is a mojor staple food of the region which is often ate with "Meen Mulakittathu" or "Meen vevichathu" (fish in fiery red chilly sauce).
Pesaha Appam is the rice bread made by the Saint Thomas Christians to be served on Maundy Thursday night. Traditionally, Pesaha Appam is served in a ceremonial manner on Maundy Thursday night in Syrian Christian households. The head of the family cuts the appam, dips it in paalukurukku (syrup) or Pesaha Pal (made of coconut milk), and serves it to the other family members.
Syrian Christian beef ularthiathu is a beef dish cooked with spices. Other dishes include Piralan (chicken stir-fries), Meat Thoran (dry curry with shredded coconut), sardine and duck curries, and Meen molee (spicy stewed fish).
- Fr. Abel Periapuram, Founder of Kalabhavan.
- James Cherian Maruthukunnel, District Governor, Lions Clubs International (1988–89).
Major political leaders who were from Palai :
Head of State
- K. R. Narayanan, President of India (1997–2002), Vice-President of India (1992–97).
[In reverse chronological order]
- M J Varkey (Vakkachen) Mattathil, Member of Indian Parliament - Rajya Sabha (1998–2004).
- N M Joseph, Minister of Forests, Kerala State (1987–91)
- M M Jacob, Deputy Chairman of Rajya Sabha (1986–87), Union Minister (1987–93), State Governor of Meghalaya (1995–2007).
- Kidangoor Gopalakrishna Pillai, General Secretary of NSS (1967 onwards) and Indian High-Commissioner to Singapore (1992 onwards).
- P.K. VasudevanNair, Chief Minister of Kerala State
- K M Chandy, State Governor (1982–89), President of Kerala Pradesh Congress Committee.
- K M Mani, Member of Kerala Legislative Assembly (1965 onwards) and Minister of Kerala State (different terms during 1977 - incumbent).
- T A Thomman, Minister of Home, Kerala State (1964–65)
- Cherian J Kappen, Freedom Fighter,Member of Indian Parliament - Lok Sabha (1962–67). Municipal Chairman, D.C.C president
- George Thomas Kottukapally, Member of Indian Parliament - Lok Sabha (1957–62), U.N. Delegate.
- R V Thomas, President (Speaker) of Travancore State Legislative Assembly (1947–49).
- Ulahannan Ulahannan Vadakkan, Member of Sree Moolam Popular Assembly of Travancore State (1922–31).
- Dr P J Thomas, Member of Madras Legislative Council, 1937–42 and Member of Indian Parliament - Rajya Sabha 1957-62.
- J Thomas Kayalackakom, Member of Sree Moolam Popular Assembly of Travancore State (1922–31).
Literature & Education
- Paremmakkal Thoma Kathanar: Author of "Varthamana Pusthakam", the first travelogue in an Indian language.
- Ramapurathu Warrier - Poet (Kuchelavritham).
- Mahakavi Kattakayam Cherian Mappillai (1859–1936) - Author of Sri Yesu Vijayam (1926) & Editor of Vijnaana Rathnaakaram (1913)
- Mahakavi Pala Narayanan Nair, poet, teacher, most celebrated work 'keralam valarunnu'
- Mahakavi Pravithanam PM Devasia, poet
- Lalithambika Antharjanam, novelist
- B. Sandhya IPS, writer and police officer.
- Paul Zacharia, writer & columnist
- Santhosh Pala, new generation poet
- Ezhacherry Ramachandran, poet
- Bishop Sebastian Vayalil, Founder of St. Thomas College
- Cyriac Thomas, former Vice Chancellor
- Dr. K. L Sebastain (Kizhakkayil) Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize For Science & Techknology
- Col. G.V. Raja - Foremost Sports Promoter.
- M D Valsamma, Athletics - Asian Games Gold Medalist.
- (C.V. Sunny),Basketball-Former Indian Captain.
- Mani C. Kappan International Volleyball Player
- Wilson Cherian International Swimmer
Commerce & Industry
- C R Kesavan Vaidyar - Pioneer Medicinal Soap Maker.
- Joseph Augusti Kayalackakom (1884–1968) - Founder Managing Director of Palai Central Bank.
- Jacob Cherian Maruthukunnel - Pioneer in Banking, Motor Transport, Deep sea Fishing
- Mani C. Kappan (Director,Producer,Actor)
- Bhadran, Movie Director
- Miss Kumari, late Malayalam actress
- Suvarna Mathew Actress
- Ponnamma Babu Actress
- Pala Thankam Actress
- Mia George (Gimi George)Actress
- Asin Thottumkal Actress
- Rimi Tomy Singer
- Listin Stephen, Film producer
- Chali Pala, Actor
- Remya Nikhil,TV Anchor,Dancer,Model
- Albichan Adhikaram, Film Editor, Short Film Director
- Dr. A.M.Michael, Former Director of Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi and also Vice Chancellor of Kerala Agricultural University. Dr. Michael is the 1st Indian Agricultural Engineer, graduating from the Allahabad Agricultural Institute, Allahabad.
- Jom Michael Koottumkal, son of Thomas k Michael is know for his works and research in aerodynamics,aerospace and avionics...
- Jose Panachippuram, Associate Editor, Malayala Manorama daily
- Eby J Jose Editor, Gulf Life Magazine
- Robin Jose Editor, Palanews.com News Portal
- shinil unithroth is known for best journals andf photography.
Colleges in Pala are affiliated to the Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam. Educational institutes here are hubs of sports excellence. Famous international volleyball player Jimmy George was an alumnus of St. Thomas College. Olympian Shiny Wilson is an alumnus of Alphonsa College. Many institutions are run under the management of the Diocese of Pala.
Proposed:Indian Institute of Information Technology,Indian Institute of Hotel Management and Catering Technology, Mar Sleeba Medical College
Teacher Training Institute
Industrial Training Institute
Pala Municipal Stadium
Cherian J Kappen Memorial Stadium
Coaching Centers in Pala
Civil Service Institute Pala
The Civil Service Institute was founded in January, 1998, sponsored jointly by the Archdiocese of Changanacherry and the dioceses of Palai and Kanjirappally as a part of the Inter-diocesan Centre for Human Resources Development.The CSIP’s achievement as a centre for career development is reflected in the number of students who passed the examination from the institute. The number of students who secured civil services from the instituted is partial in depicting the role of CSIP as a centre for career development of learning. There may be hundreds of candidates of the institute who secured better placements in government services and other institutions. Simultaneously, large number of college going students who have undergone part-time training in the institute gets entry into higher education courses. The institute’s achievements in the field of civil services examination is illustrated under roll of honour.
Brilliant Study Centre Pala
Brilliant Study Centre, the numero uno among the innumerable entrance coaching centers in the state, was established in 1984 and eversince its inception it has been providing excellent coaching for medical and Engineering Entrance Examination
Mohans Institute of Corporate Studies [MICS] Pala
Mohans Institute of Corporate Studies (MICS)visualises quality education for Chartered Accountancy (CA) and Company Secretaryship (CS) courses by giving professional approach to the course. The classes being handled by experienced Company Secretaries and Chartered Accountants, MICS has been successfully producing many young professionals in Kerala.
Lumen Study Centre: St. Thomas College Palai
An excellent coaching Center for medical and Engineering Entrance Examination run by St. Thomas College Management
Talent Academy Pala
Talent Academy provides outstanding classes and extensive preparation techniques, which help the aspirants to achieve top ranks in AIEEE, JEE-IIT Kerala state medical/Engineering examinations
Thoppans' Swimming Academy
Thoppans' Swimming Academy is an academy for swimming owned and operated by Thoppil brothers.
Pala Jumps Academy
As of 2001[update] India census, Pala had a population of 22,640. Males constitute 49% of the population and females 51%. Pala has an average literacy rate of 98%, higher than the national average of 73%: male literacy is 98.5%, and female literacy is 97.8%, still much lower than the state average. This is thought to be because of the plantation industry influence despite having large number of schools. In Pala, 10% of the population is under 6 years of age.
A Rare Social Model
Although Palai is very much associated with rubber cultivation, the widespread cultivation of rubber started here only around the middle of 20th century. But Palai was into agriculture decades - or even centuries - before that. Until rubber came, farming in Palai was of the composite type, i.e. all crops were inter-planted in all fields by everyone. Typically, all fields had several tiers of plants. Big trees like Coconut, Jackfruit, Mango etc. were there at the upper-most level, followed by other plants of medium height that supported pepper vines. Then the banana plants were there, followed by tubers like tapioca, yam, sweet potato etc. These were staple items then. Further, there were the home-grown vegetables like lady's fingers, eggplant, different varieties of gourd etc. Finally, at the ground level, there were the shrub-like plants like ginger, turmeric etc. This form of composite cultivation, though required hard work throughout the year, was a self-supporting one.
Another feature of Palai is that the place was colonized centuries ago by people migrating from the plains in search of land, and with the hope of making a living - if not a fortune - by 'taming' the land. It was a sort of "wild west". Many among the new migrants perished in the hostile environment, but those who survived became well off. Also, there were no "landless labor" that was common in other parts of Kerala. There was a practice called "Kilachupaathy" (ploughed half) - also called "Vechupaathy" (kept half) - in which owners of large tracts of undeveloped land gave land to those willing to develop it, who in turn are allowed to keep half the land as their own after developing it, and only the other half need to be returned to the original owner. As a result of this novel practice, everyone was the owner of a small parcel of land that he cultivated himself. On the one hand, the cultivation of tapioca and other tuber crops saved the people from poverty and famines that affected other places, while on the other, the dispersed land holding helped to reduce disparities in income levels. A unique type of egalitarian social set up therefore emerged. This also prevented extremist ideologies from making inroads into Palai.
Even now Palai is one of the few places where the rich are not addressed as "Muthalali" (rich man). Instead, the common form of addressing is "Chettan" (elder brother). Those younger than you are simply called by their names, irrespective of their position, wealth or social standing. Only those in the bureaucracy or the professions are addressed by a polite "sir". One is reminded of the practice in Gujarat where all the elderly are addressed by even kids as simply "bhai" (elder brother) even if he happens to be the prime minister. The dominant presence of Syrian Malabar Nasrani Christians here also would have played a role in bringing about this unique social set up in Palai.
Social change which swept the rest of Kerala naturally affected Palai also. In the second half the 20th century, as income from land got divided among the many children in each family, the more enterprising among them started the second wave of migration - this time to the high ranges in Idukki district and to the northern Malabar region of Kerala. Many of today's residents in those regions confirm that their ancestors came from places in and around Palai. The 1960s saw another development. As education became common, many young boys and girls from even middle-class families started going to Europe, USA, UK, Australia and New Zealand to work as Registered Nurses and other medical support staff. This brought great prosperity to a section of population. This was followed by the so-called "Gulf Boom" in which, though late, even many from Palai also joined. As the price of rubber became erratic there was massive influx into government jobs too. The 1990s saw children from every family trying to get a job, preferably an overseas job. The advent of the Information Technology boom made the dreams of many come true.
Records and Achievements
Meenachil Taluk, of which Pala town is the headquarters, has the unique distinction of holding innumerable records. It is amazing that a rather remote Taluk located in the hilly inland could achieve so much.
Pala Related Websites