RML 9 pounder 8 and 6 cwt guns
|RML 9 pounder 8 cwt gun|
|Place of origin||United Kingdom|
|In service||1871 - 1895|
|Used by||British Empire|
|Variants||9 pdr 8 cwt Mark I (Land Service)
8 cwt Mark II (Naval Service)
6 cwt Mark I (N.S.)
6 cwt Mark II (L.S.)
6 cwt. Mark III (N.S.)
6 cwt Mark IV (N.S.)
|Weight||8-long-hundredweight (400 kg) or 6-long-hundredweight (300 kg)|
|Shell||9.1 pounds (4.1 kg) (common shell)
9.8 pounds (4.4 kg) (shrapnel)
|Breech||none – muzzle-loading|
|Muzzle velocity||1,330 feet per second (405 m/s)|
|Effective firing range||3,500 yards (3,200 m)|
The RML 9 pounder 8 cwt gun and the RML 9 pounder 6 cwt gun were British Rifled, Muzzle Loading (RML) field, horse and naval artillery guns manufactured in England in the 19th century, which fired a projectile weighing approximately 9 pounds (4.1 kg). "8 cwt" and "6 cwt" refers to the weight of the gun to differentiate it from other 9 pounder guns.
The 9 pounder 8 cwt Rifled Muzzle Loader was the field gun selected by the Royal Artillery in 1871 to replace the more sophisticated RBL 12 pounder 8 cwt Armstrong gun, which had acquired a reputation for unreliability. The gun was rifled using the system developed by William Palliser, in which studs protruding from the side of the shell engaged with three spiral grooves in the barrel. In 1874, a 6 cwt version was introduced for horse artillery and was later adopted for field artillery use, replacing the 8 cwt version. All variants used the same ammunition, which took the form of shrapnel shell, case shot and common shell.
The 9 pounder remained in front-line service with the Royal Artillery until 1878 when the RML 13 pounder 8 cwt gun was introduced, however it remained in use with colonial forces until 1895 and saw action in the Anglo-Zulu War of 1879, the First Boer War of 1881  and the Anglo-Egyptian War in 1882.
- 9 pounder 8 cwt Mark I (Land Service): Introduced into the Royal Artillery in 1871. It was later withdrawn and modified for sea service.
- 9 pounder 8 cwt Mark II (Naval Service): Introduced in 1873 by the Royal Navy.
- 9 pounder 6 cwt Mark I (N.S.): A few were made for experimental trials but they proved to be too short; some were issued to the Royal Indian Navy. In 1873, forty five were completed for use as boat guns.
- 9 pounder 6 cwt Mark II (L.S.): A new design in 1874 for the Royal Horse Artillery, it was longer than the 8 cwt gun but had the same carriage.
- 9 pounder 6 cwt Mark III (N.S.): Introduced in 1879, a modified Mark II for naval service.
- 9 pounder 6 cwt Mark IV (N.S.): Similar to the Mark III with a steel jacket instead of wrought iron previously used, and with a strengthened cascabel.
- Firepower - The Royal Artillery Museum, London
- Fort Nelson, Hampshire, Royal Armouries Collection
- Southsea Castle, Hampshire, England
- North Battleford Museum, Saskatchewan
- CFB Petawawa, Ontario
- New Brunswick Military History Museum, CFB Gagetown, New Brunswick
- Fort Hughes, New Brunswick
- Royal Kennebecasis Yacht Club, New Brunswick
- Fort Anne, Nova Scotia
- Fort St Catherine, Bermuda
- Australian Army Artillery Museum, Manly, New South Wales
- Notre-Dame-des-Neiges cemetery, Montréal 
- Hall, DD (Major). "Military History Journal, Vol 3 No 5: June 1976 - AMMUNITION — PART II 9-PR 8 cwt RML". samilitaryhistory.org. The South African Military History Society. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- Skaarup, Harold A (2012), Shelldrake: Canadian Artillery Museums and Gun Monuments iUniverse.com, ISBN 978-14697-50002 (p. 131)
- Goodrich, Caspar F (Lt Cdr), Report of the British Naval and Military Operations In Egypt 1882, Navy Department, Washington, 1885, p.231
- Moore, David. "List of British Service Artillery in Use During the Victorian Period". www.victorianforts.co.uk. Victorian Forts and Artillery. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- Boxell, A L (2010), The Ordnance of Southsea Castle Tricorn books, ISBN 978-0-9562498-4-5 (pp. 1–9)
- "ARTILLERY REGISTER - RML 9 Pounder 6 cwt Mark III". ww.artilleryhistory.org. The Royal Australian Artillery Historical Company. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- "19 century military cannon". Baburek.co. 2014-11-11. Retrieved 2017-03-28.
- Captain John F Owen R.A., "Treatise on the Construction and Manufacture of Ordnance in the British Service", Prepared in the Royal Gun Factory, London, 1877, pages 254-257, 292.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to RML 9 pounder field guns.|
- Handbook for the 9-pr. R.M.L. guns of 6 cwt. and 8 cwt. land service, 1889, 1892, 1895 at State Library of Victoria
- Handbook for 9-pr. R.M.L. guns of 6 cwt. and 8 cwt. Land service 1895, 1901 at State Library of Victoria
- Handbook for 9-pr R.M.L. guns of 6cwt. and 8cwt., (Movable armament) 1898 at State Library of Victoria
- Armstrong RML 9 Pounder Mark II - views of the 9 pounder gun and its limber from the original handbook. Courtesy of the Royal Artillery Historical Trust