Image-guided surgery

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Image-guided surgery (IGS) is any surgical procedure where the surgeon uses tracked surgical instruments in conjunction with preoperative or intraoperative images in order to indirectly guide the procedure. Image guided surgery systems use cameras or electromagnetic fields to capture and relay the patient's anatomy and the surgeon's precise movements in relation to the patient, to computer monitors in the operating room.

Image-guided surgery helps surgeons perform safer and less invasive procedures, and remove brain tumors that were once considered inoperable due to their size or location.[1]

The various applications of navigation for neurosurgery have been widely used and reported for almost two decades.[1] According to a study in 2000, researchers were already anticipating that a significant portion of neurosurgery would be performed using computer-based interventions.[2]

Part of the wider field of computer-assisted surgery, image-guided surgery can take place in hybrid operating rooms using intraoperative imaging. A hybrid operating room is a surgical theatre that is equipped with advanced medical imaging devices such as fixed C-Arms, CT scanners or MRI scanners. Most image-guided surgical procedures are minimally invasive. A field of medicine that pioneered and specializes in minimally invasive image-guided surgery is interventional radiology.

Image-guided surgery was originally developed for treatment of brain tumors using stereotactic surgery and radiosurgery that are guided by computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) using a technology known as the N-localizer.[3][4][5]

A hand-held surgical probe is an essential component of any image-guided surgery system.[citation needed] During the surgical procedure, the IGS tracks the probe position and displays the anatomy beneath it as, for example, three orthogonal image slices on a workstation-based 3D imaging system. Existing IGS systems use different tracking techniques including mechanical, optical, ultrasonic, and electromagnetic.

When fluorescence modality is adopted to such devices, the technique is also called fluorescence image-guided surgery.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Mezger U, Jendrewski C, Bartels M (2013). "Navigation in surgery". Langenbecks Arch Surg. 398: 501–14. PMC 3627858Freely accessible. PMID 23430289. doi:10.1007/s00423-013-1059-4. 
  2. ^ Kelly PJ (Jan 2000). "What is past is prologue". Neurosurgery. 46 (1): 16–27. 
  3. ^ Galloway, RL Jr. (2015). "Introduction and Historical Perspectives on Image-Guided Surgery". In Golby, AJ. Image-Guided Neurosurgery. Amsterdam: Elsevier. pp. 3–4. 
  4. ^ Tse, VCK; Kalani, MYS; Adler, JR (2015). "Techniques of Stereotactic Localization". In Chin, LS; Regine, WF. Principles and Practice of Stereotactic Radiosurgery. New York: Springer. p. 28. 
  5. ^ Saleh, H; Kassas, B (2015). "Developing Stereotactic Frames for Cranial Treatment". In Benedict, SH; Schlesinger, DJ; Goetsch, SJ; Kavanagh, BD. Stereotactic Radiosurgery and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy. Boca Raton: CRC Press. pp. 156–159. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Khan, FR; Henderson, JM (2013). "Deep Brain Stimulation Surgical Techniques". In Lozano, AM; Hallet, M. Brain Stimulation: Handbook of Clinical Neurology. 116. Amsterdam: Elsevier. pp. 28–30. 
  • Arle, J (2009). "Development of a Classic: the Todd-Wells Apparatus, the BRW, and the CRW Stereotactic Frames". In Lozano, AM; Gildenberg, PL; Tasker, RR. Textbook of Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. pp. 456–461. 
  • Brown RA, Nelson JA (June 2012). "Invention of the N-localizer for stereotactic neurosurgery and its use in the Brown-Roberts-Wells stereotactic frame". Neurosurgery. 70 (Operative Supplement 2): 173–176. PMID 22186842. doi:10.1227/NEU.0b013e318246a4f7. 
  • Brown RA, Nelson JA (2016). "The invention and early history of the N-localizer for stereotactic neurosurgery". Cureus. 8 (6): e642. PMC 4959822Freely accessible. PMID 27462476. doi:10.7759/cureus.642.