Rufous fishing owl
|Rufous fishing owl|
The rufous fishing owl is a large owl with dark eyes, which lacks ear tufts and has an indistinct, pale cinnamon facial disc and underparts. The mantle and back are rufous with a white row of spots on the scapulars. The flight feathers are barred. It measures 46 to 51 cm (18 to 20 in) in length, and has bare legs and feet.
Distribution and habitat
The rufous fishing owl is endemic to west Africa. It is found in Ivory Coast, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical mangrove forests but there are records from plantations and may also be able to survive in secondary forest with small rivers if there is suitable gallery forest, where tree branches overhang the streams to provide fishing posts. It is threatened by habitat loss.
The habits of the rufous fishing owl are poorly known. It is thought to mainly eat fish and the catfish were recorded in the stomach contents of a specimen from Sierra Leone. It may also feed freshwater crabs among other food items. Eggs have been laid in Sierra Leone in September and October and juveniles moulting out of juvenile into adult plumage, roughly six months after fledging, have been recorded in Liberia in July. It is thought that a single chick is the normal brood size. The bird is probably mainly nocturnal but an individual was camera trapped in 2009 in Sierra Leone at midday.
Status and conservation
It was formerly classified as "Endangered" by the IUCN. New research shows that it is not as rare as was once believed. Consequently, it was downlisted to "Vulnerable" on the 2011 Red List of Threatened Species.
English naturalist Richard Bowdler Sharpe described the rufous fishing owl in 1871. It is one of three species in the genus Scotopelia. The person it is named after is a Governor Ussher who collected the original specimens Sharpe used in his description.
- "Scotopelia ussheri". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- "Rufous Fishing-Owl Scotopelia ussheri Sharpe, 1871". Avibase. Denis Lepage. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- König, Claus; Weick, Friedhelm; Becking, Jan-Hendrick (1999). Owls A Guide to the Owls of the World. Pica Press. pp. 315–316. ISBN 1-873403-74-7.
- Burton, John A. (1992). Owls of the world: their evolution, structure and ecology. Peter Lowe. p. 59.
- "Full text of new African Birds". Biodiversity Heritage Library. biodiversitylibrary.org. Retrieved 28 October 2016.