STRIDE (security)

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STRIDE is a model for identifying computer security threats[1] developed by Praerit Garg and Loren Kohnfelder at Microsoft.[2] It provides a mnemonic for security threats in six categories.[3]

The threats are:

The STRIDE was initially created as part of the process of threat modeling. STRIDE is a model of threats, used to help reason and find threats to a system. It is used in conjunction with a model of the target system that can be constructed in parallel. This includes a full breakdown of processes, data stores, data flows, and trust boundaries.[5]

Today it is often used by security experts to help answer the question "what can go wrong in this system we're working on?"

Each threat is a violation of a desirable property for a system:

Threat Desired property
Spoofing Authenticity
Tampering Integrity
Repudiation Non-repudiability
Information disclosure Confidentiality
Denial of service Availability
Elevation of privilege Authorization

Notes on the threats[edit]

Repudiation is unusual because it's a threat when viewed from a security perspective, and a desirable property of some privacy systems, for example, Goldberg's "Off the Record" messaging system. This is a useful demonstration of the tension that security design analysis must sometimes grapple with.

Elevation of privilege is often called escalation of privilege, or privilege escalation. They are synonymous.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Kohnfelder, Loren; Garg, Praerit (April 1, 1999). "The threats to our products". Microsoft Interface. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  2. ^ Shostack, Adam (27 August 2009). ""The Threats To Our Products"". Microsoft SDL Blog. Microsoft. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  3. ^ "The STRIDE Threat Model". Microsoft. Microsoft.
  4. ^ Guzman, Aaron; Gupta, Aditya (2017). IoT Penetration Testing Cookbook: Identify Vulnerabilities and Secure your Smart Devices. Packt Publishing. pp. 34–35. ISBN 978-1-78728-517-0.
  5. ^ Shostack, Adam (2014). Threat Modeling: Designing for Security. Wiley. pp. 61–64. ISBN 978-1118809990.
  6. ^ "Key OT Cybersecurity Challenges: Availability, Integrity and Confidentiality". Retrieved 2022-07-20.
  7. ^ "What is the CIA Triad? Definition, Explanation and Examples". Retrieved 2022-05-01.

External links[edit]