Salt-and-pepper noise

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An image with salt-and-pepper noise
See also: Salt and pepper

Salt-and-pepper noise is a form of noise sometimes seen on images. It presents itself as sparsely occurring white and black pixels. An effective noise reduction method for this type of noise is a median filter[1] or a morphological filter.[citation needed] For reducing either salt noise or pepper noise, but not both, a contraharmonic mean filter can be effective.[2]


  1. ^ Jayaraman; et al. (2009). Digital Image Processing. Tata McGraw Hill Education. p. 272. ISBN 9781259081439. 
  2. ^ Marques, Oge (2011). Practical Image and Video Processing Using MATLAB. Wiley. pp. 275–276. ISBN 9781118093481.