Shaemas O'Sheel (September 19, 1886 – April 2, 1954) was an Irish American poet and critic. Born James Shields, he changed his name to an anglicized spelling of its Irish version soon after high school. He worked briefly for the United States Senate (1913-1916), held jobs with various newspapers, and did publicity and advertising work. Although third-generation Irish American and never visiting Ireland, he was active in the Irish independence movement. He was, in his own words, "a very ardent communist and a staunch supporter of the Soviet Union". However, because he disagreed with Soviet foreign policy, many communist publications (such as New Masses) refused to publish his work.