Neves, Gambi, Danovaro & Kristensen, 2014
It is the first animal species described that does not require oxygen at any point during its life. The species, along with two other newly discovered species, Rugiloricus nov. sp. and Pliciloricus nov. sp., were found in the sediment of the anoxic L'Atalante basin of the Mediterranean Sea.
Electron microscope images show that the species' cellular innards appear to be adapted for a zero-oxygen life. Their cells appear to be lacking mitochondria, which use oxygen to generate energy in other animals. Instead, the species appears to have hydrogenosomes, organelles which provide energy in some anaerobic single-celled creatures.
- Neves, Gambi, Danovaro & Kristensen (2014) Spinoloricus cinziae (Phylum Loricifera), a new species from a hypersaline anoxic deep basin in the Mediterranean Sea. Systematics and Biodiversity, vol. 12, 4, p. 489-502 doi:10.1080/14772000.2014.943820.
- Jackson P. (8 April 2010). http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8609246.stm "First oxygen-free animals found". BBC News. accessed 16 April 2010.
- New species 'live without oxygen', The Telegraph, April 9, 2010
- Multicelled Animals May Live Oxygen-Free, U.S. News & World Report, April 12, 2010
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