Spinoloricus cinziae

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Spinoloricus cinziae
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Loricifera
Family: Nanaloricidae
Genus: Spinoloricus
Species: S. cinziae
Binomial name
Spinoloricus cinziae
Neves, Gambi, Danovaro & Kristensen, 2014

Spinoloricus cinziae is an animal species described in 2014 in the phylum Loricifera.[1]

It is the first animal species described that does not require oxygen at any point during its life.[2][3][4] The species, along with two other newly discovered species, Rugiloricus nov. sp. and Pliciloricus nov. sp., were found in the sediment of the anoxic L'Atalante basin of the Mediterranean Sea.[3][4]

Electron microscope images[4] show that the species' cellular innards appear to be adapted for a zero-oxygen life. Their cells appear to be lacking mitochondria, which use oxygen to generate energy in other animals. Instead, the species appears to have hydrogenosomes, organelles which provide energy in some anaerobic single-celled creatures.[5]

With a visual resemblance to tiny cups with tentacles sticking out, the species has been said to look like something out of a Dr. Seuss book.[5]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Neves, Gambi, Danovaro & Kristensen (2014) Spinoloricus cinziae (Phylum Loricifera), a new species from a hypersaline anoxic deep basin in the Mediterranean Sea. Systematics and Biodiversity, vol. 12, 4, p. 489-502 doi:10.1080/14772000.2014.943820.
  2. ^ Jackson P. (8 April 2010). http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8609246.stm "First oxygen-free animals found". BBC News. accessed 16 April 2010.
  3. ^ a b New species 'live without oxygen', The Telegraph, April 9, 2010
  4. ^ a b c Roberto Danovaro; et al. (2010). "The first metazoa living in permanently anoxic conditions". BMC Biology. 8 (30): 30. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-8-30. PMC 2907586Freely accessible. PMID 20370908. 
  5. ^ a b Multicelled Animals May Live Oxygen-Free, U.S. News & World Report, April 12, 2010