Spiral valves of Heister
|Spiral valves of Heister|
The spiral valves of Heister are supported by underlying smooth muscle fibers. There is some uncertainty regarding the role of the folds. Historically, physicians believed that their function was to aid in the passage of bile to and from the gallbladder, as well as regulate the degree of gallbladder distension.
The presence of the spiral folds, in combination with the tortuosity of the cystic duct, makes endoscopic cannulation and catheterization of the cystic duct extremely difficult. Also, the valves of Heister are susceptible to lacerations and were a serious obstacle to the surgical canalization. Thanks to newer technologies, nowadays this procedure is possible. They were named after German anatomist Lorenz Heister (1683-1758).
- Turner, Mary Ann; Fulcher, Ann S. (2001). "The Cystic Duct: Normal Anatomy and Disease Processes". RadioGraphics. 21 (1): 3–22; questionnaire 288–94. PMID 11158640. doi:10.1148/radiographics.21.1.g01ja093.
- Meilstrup, J W; Hopper, K D; Thieme, G A (1991). "Imaging of gallbladder variants". American Journal of Roentgenology. 157 (6): 1205–8. PMID 1950867. doi:10.2214/ajr.157.6.1950867.
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