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GlmZ RNA activator of glmS mRNA
Predicted secondary structure and sequence conservation of GlmZ_SraJ
Symbol GlmZ_SraJ
Alt. Symbols SraJ
Rfam RF00083
Other data
RNA type Gene; sRNA
Domain(s) Bacteria
SO 0000655
PDB structures PDBe

GlmZ (formally known as SraJ) is a small non-coding RNA (ncRNA). It is the functional product of a gene which is not translated into protein.

This ncRNA was discovered in the bacteria Escherichia coli during a large scale computational screen for transcription signals and genomic features of known small RNA-encoding genes.[1] During this screen 14 novel ncRNA genes were identified, including SraB, SraC, SraD and SraG.[1]

The expression of SraJ was experimentally confirmed by Northern blotting.[1] This ncRNA is expressed in early logarithmic phase, but its level decreases into stationary phase. Northern blot analysis also indicated this RNA undergoes specific cleavage processing.

The GlmZ sRNA has been shown to positively control the synthesis of GlmS mRNA.[2][3] GlmZ is regulated by a related sRNA called GlmY.[4][5][6] GlmY functions as an anti-adaptor, it binds to RapZ (RNase adaptor protein for sRNA GlmZ), this binding prevents RapZ from binding to GlmZ and targeting it for cleavage by RNase E.[7]


  1. ^ a b c Argaman L, Hershberg R, Vogel J, et al. (2001). "Novel small RNA-encoding genes in the intergenic regions of Escherichia coli". Curr. Biol. 11 (12): 941–50. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(01)00270-6. PMID 11448770.
  2. ^ Kalamorz F, Reichenbach B, März W, Rak B, Görke B (2007). "Feedback control of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase GlmS expression depends on the small RNA GlmZ and involves the novel protein YhbJ in Escherichia coli". Mol Microbiol. 65 (6): 1518–33. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2007.05888.x. PMID 17824929.
  3. ^ Urban JH, Papenfort K, Thomsen J, Schmitz RA, Vogel J (2007). "A conserved small RNA promotes discoordinate expression of the glmUS operon mRNA to activate GlmS synthesis". J Mol Biol. 373 (3): 521–8. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2007.07.035. PMID 17854828.
  4. ^ Reichenbach B, Maes A, Kalamorz F, Hajnsdorf E, Görke B (2008). "The small RNA GlmY acts upstream of the sRNA GlmZ in the activation of glmS expression and is subject to regulation by polyadenylation in Escherichia coli". Nucleic Acids Res. 36 (8): 2570–80. doi:10.1093/nar/gkn091. PMC 2377431. PMID 18334534.
  5. ^ Urban JH, Vogel J (2008). "Two seemingly homologous noncoding RNAs act hierarchically to activate glmS mRNA translation". PLoS Biol. 6 (3): e64. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060064. PMC 2267818. PMID 18351803.
  6. ^ Görke B, Vogel J (2008). "Noncoding RNA control of the making and breaking of sugars". Genes Dev. 22 (21): 2914–25. doi:10.1101/gad.1717808. PMID 18981470.
  7. ^ Göpel, Y; Papenfort, K; Reichenbach, B; Vogel, J; Görke, B (Mar 1, 2013). "Targeted decay of a regulatory small RNA by an adaptor protein for RNase E and counteraction by an anti-adaptor RNA". Genes & Development. 27 (5): 552–64. doi:10.1101/gad.210112.112. PMC 3605468. PMID 23475961.

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