Thick shelled river mussel

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Thick shelled river mussel
Thick shelled river mussel - Unio crassus.gif
Unio crassus from Lužnice River, Czech Republic
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Bivalvia
Order: Unionoida
Family: Unionidae
Genus: Unio
Species: U. crassus
Binomial name
Unio crassus
Philipsson (de) in Retzius, 1788[2]

The thick shelled river mussel (Unio crassus) is a species of freshwater mussel, an aquatic bivalve mollusk in the family Unionidae, the river mussels.


As part of newly discovered reproductive behaviour, this mollusc crawls up to the edge of the water, exposing its excurrent aperture, and then lets loose a stream of water. The fountain of water often contains glochidia, and it is suggested that this spurting behavior may facilitate dispersal of mussel larvae[3] (video).[4]


The thick shelled river mussel declined during the 20th century everywhere in Europe due to deteriorating water quality,[5] habitat fragmentation and host fish limitation.[6]


Its native distribution is Europe and Western Asia.[1][7]


  1. ^ a b Van Damme, D. (2011). "Unio crassus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 22 April 2013. 
  2. ^ "Unio crassus Philipsson in Retzius, 1788". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 13 July 2017. 
  3. ^ Vicentini, Heinrich (2005-11-01). "Unusual spurting behaviour of the freshwater mussel Unio crassus". Journal of Molluscan Studies. 71 (4): 409–410. doi:10.1093/mollus/eyi045. ISSN 0260-1230. 
  4. ^ Karel Douda (2017-10-26), Spurting Mussel (Unio crassus), retrieved 2017-10-26 
  5. ^ Douda, Karel (2010). "Effects of nitrate nitrogen pollution on Central European unionid bivalves revealed by distributional data and acute toxicity testing". Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. 20 (2): 189–197. doi:10.1002/aqc.1076. 
  6. ^ Douda, Karel; Horký, P.; Bílý, M.; Gompper, Matthew; Johnson, Jerald (2012). "Host limitation of the thick-shelled river mussel: identifying the threats to declining affiliate species". Animal Conservation. 15 (5): 536–544. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1795.2012.00546.x. 
  7. ^ "Unio crassus Philipson, 1788". Fauna Europaea. Fauna Europaea Secretariat, Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin. Retrieved 13 July 2017. 
  8. ^ (in Czech) Horsák M., Juřičková L., Beran L., Čejka T. & Dvořák L. (2010). "Komentovaný seznam měkkýšů zjištěných ve volné přírodě České a Slovenské republiky. [Annotated list of mollusc species recorded outdoors in the Czech and Slovak Republics]". Malacologica Bohemoslovaca, Suppl. 1: 1-37. PDF.
  9. ^ Juřičková L., Horsák M. & Beran L., 2001: Check-list of the molluscs (Mollusca) of the Czech Republic. Acta Soc. Zool. Bohem., 65: 25-40.
  10. ^ Red List of the molluscs (Mollusca) of the Czech Republic
  11. ^ Dušek J., Hošek M. & Kolářová J. (2007) Hodnotící zpráva o stavu z hlediska ochrany evropsky významných druhů a typů přírodních stanovišť v České republice za rok 2004-2006. - Ochrana přírody, 62(5): appendix 5:I-IV. (in Czech language)
  12. ^ "Threatened and Near Threatened molluscs". 2001. Archived from the original on 2013-05-11. 
  13. ^ "Recherche de sites par espèce: Invertébrés: Unio crassus (Unio crassus)". 2007. 
  14. ^ Glöer P. & Meier-Brook C. (2003) Süsswassermollusken. DJN, pp. 134, strana 109, ISBN 3-923376-02-2
  15. ^ MinLNV>Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality - Nature Law - Bataafse stroommossel (Unio crassus). Accessed at the ministries website[permanent dead link]
  16. ^ "Anemoon > Flora en Fauna > Soorteninformatie". 
  17. ^ Polish Red Data Book of Animals
  18. ^ (in Czech) Měkkýši (Mollusca) České republiky a Slovenska Archived 2012-05-29 at
  19. ^ "Thick shelled river mussel - Naturhistoriska riksmuseet". 
  20. ^ "Licensinfo -". 

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