Thomas de Scales, 7th Baron Scales
|Thomas de Scales|
Arms of Sir Thomas de Scales, 7th Baron Scales, KG
|Died||25 July 1460|
House of Lancaster
|Battles/wars||Hundred Years' War (Patay)
War of the Roses
|Awards||Order of the Garter|
Lord Thomas de Scales or Thomas Scales de Newselles or Thomas Scalles KG (1397 – 25 July 1460), 7th Baron Scales, Knight of the Garter from 1426 was one of the main English commanders in the last twenty years of the Hundred Years' War. The son of Robert de Scales, 5th Baron Scales (c. 1372–7 December 1402), he succeeded his brother Robert de Scales, 6th Baron Scales (died July 1419) as baron.
Thomas distinguished himself in France, against Jack Cade and in many other places. He was rewarded with a grant of £100 a year during his life and the privilege of a 200 tonne ship to transport goods wherever he saw fit (excluding Calais). He was summoned to Parliament from 1445 to 1460.
Scales was an important man of considerable wealth. This is alluded to in Shakespeare's Henry VI, Part 3: King Edward IV's brothers George and Richard complain to Edward about his bestowal of Scales' heiress (one of the wealthiest in England) on his Queen's parvenu brother, instead of one of them.
In 1422, Scales crossed the Channel to Normandy to fight against Joan of Arc in the Loire campaign. He saw action from the Siege of Orléans to the Battle of Patay and he served as a lieutenant of John of Lancaster, the Duke of Bedford.
By 1423, Scales was captain of Verneuil. From 1424 to 1425, he fought alongside John Fastolf to recapture the fortress at Maine.
According to a recruitment roll now at the National Army Museum, he commanded a corps of 728 archers (some with fire-tipped arrows) and about 50 infantry at the siege of Saint-Denis. In 1439, to cut off Mont-Saint-Michel, at the end of the French bridge in English-held territory, he founded the citadel of Granville. In 1442 Granville was taken by surprise by the French defenders of the Mont.
In the Wars of the Roses Scales fought for Lancaster, and as such appears in Shakespeare's Henry VI, Part 2. On 25 July 1460 Scales was murdered, having, as commander of the Tower of London, turned its weapons against the city which was supporting the Yorkist Earl of Salisbury in besieging the Tower.
Coat of arms
Argent, a fess and a canton gules
Thomas married Ismayne Whalesburgh (aka Esmania aka Emma Whaleborough). They had two children:-
- Thomas Scales (died in infancy)
- Lady Elizabeth de Scales Woodville, Baroness Scales (died 2 September 1473), married Anthony Woodville, 2nd Earl Rivers
- His number is 139.
- Philip Morant, The History and Antiquities of the County of Essex
- Bennett, Vanora. "London and the Wars of the Roses". Retrieved 2013-08-16.
- Feudal Aids 1284-1431
- Suffolk Feet of Fines
- Thomas de Scales on thePeerage.com
- Pernoud, Régine; Clin, Marie-Véronique (1999). Joan of Arc: Her Story. Wheeler, Bonnie and duQuesnay Adams, Jeremy (translator). Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 201–202. ISBN 0-312-22730-2.
|Peerage of England|
Robert de Scales
Elizabeth de Scales Woodville