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In the context of programming, or if the conversation can safely assume what is the time scale of the data : Dynamic data or transactional data denotes information that is asynchronously changed as further updates to the information becomes available.
The opposite of this is persistent data, which is data that is infrequently accessed and not likely to be modified. Dynamic data is also different from streaming data, in that there is no constant flow of information. Rather, updates may come at any time, with periods of inactivity in between.
In the context of enterprise systems data management, "dynamic" data is still likely to be transactional, but not only limited to financial or business transactions. It may also include engineering transactions, such as a revised schematic diagram or architectural document. In this context dynamic data would be the opposite of static. Static data being either unchanged or so rarely changed that it is okay to be in the "basement" (far storage), whereas "dynamic data" would be reused or changed frequently and therefore needs to be kept in office proper ("near" storage). An original copy of a wiring schematic can change from "Dynamic" to "Static" as the new versions make it obsolete. It is still possible to reuse the original, but in the normal flow of business there is no need or very rarely a need to access obsoleted data. While the current version of the wiring schematic is considered "dynamic" (changeable and changing).
These two slightly different contexts are not opposed, rather quite similar, the difference being the "time window". The original definition was okay but did not address change of classification from Dynamic to Static (persistent). And did not clarify that "transaction" includes any type of "applied work" on a data object, therefore the reader could have mistakenly believed it was "business transaction" or "financial transaction".
Persistent data is or is likely to be in the context of the execution of a program. Static data is in the context of the business historical data, regardless of any one application or program. The "dynamic" data is the new/updated/revised/deleted data in both cases, but again over different time horizons. Your paycheck stub is dynamic data for 1 week, or 1 day, then it becomes read-only and read-rarely, which would be either and both static and persistent.
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