Trimeresurus kaulbacki

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Protobothrops kaulbacki
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Serpentes
Family: Viperidae
Genus: Protobothrops
Species: P. kaulbacki
Binomial name
Protobothrops kaulbacki
(M.A. Smith, 1940)
  • Trimeresurus kaulbacki
    M.A. Smith, 1940
  • P [rotobothrops]. kaulbacki
    — Kraus, Mink & Brown, 1996[2][3]
Common names: Kaulback's lance-headed pit viper.[4]

Protobothrops kaulbacki is a venomous pit viper species endemic to Asia. No subspecies are currently recognized.[5]


The specific name, kaulbacki, is in honor of Ronald Kaulback.[6][7][8]


Adult males may attain a total length of 134 cm (53 in), which includes a tail 22.5 cm (8.9 in) long. Females may grow longer: maximum total length 141 cm (56 in), tail 23 cm (9.1 in).

Dorsally, it is green, with a vertebral series of dark angular spots, which may be joined to form a zigzag stripe. The top of the head is black with yellow stripes. Ventrally, except for the whitish throat area, it is gray with large squarish or crescent-shaped yellow spots.[9]

Scalation includes 25 rows of dorsal scales at midbody, 201-212 ventral scales, 66-78 subcaudal scales, and 8 supralabial scales of which the third is the largest.[4]

Geographic range[edit]

P. kaulbacki had originally been known only from the type locality, which is "Pangnamdim, north of the Triangle, Upper Burma" (Myanmar).[2] In 2005 it was reported that it is also found in China.[10] Recently, this species is reported from Northeast India. Currently, It is known from single location in India at Dafla Hills in Papum Pare District, Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India.


This species is oviparous. The adult female lays a clutch of 6-32 eggs in a hole in the ground, and then remains with the eggs to guard them. Eggs measure 48–53 mm x 26–27 mm (about 2 in x 1 in). The hatchlings are 26–27 cm (about 10½ inches) in total length.[9]

See also[edit]


  1. ^
  2. ^ a b McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T. 1999. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Volume 1. Herpetologists' League. Washington, District of Columbia. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
  3. ^ "Protobothrops kaulbacki ". The Reptile Database.
  4. ^ a b Gumprecht A, Tillack F, Orlov NL, Captain A, Ryabov S. 2004. Asian Pit vipers. Geitje Books. Berlin. 1st Edition. 368 pp. ISBN 3-937975-00-4.
  5. ^ "Protobothrops kaulbacki". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 28 July 2008. 
  6. ^ Smith, M.A. 1940.
  7. ^ Guo, Peng. 2007. New evidence on the phylogenetic position of the poorly known Asian pitviper Protobothrops kaulbacki (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae) with a redescription of the species and a revision of the genus Protobothrops. Herpetological Journal 17 (4): 237-246.
  8. ^ Beolens B, Watkins M, Grayson M. 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, Maryland. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5. (Protobothrops kaulbacki, p. 138.)
  9. ^ a b Smith MA. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-region. Reptilia and Amphibia. Vol. III.—Serpentes. Secretary of State for India. (Taylor and Francis, Printers.) London. xii + 583 pp. (Protobothrops kaulbacki, p. 512.)
  10. ^ Rao D, Zhao E. 2005. A New Record from China – Protobothrops kaulbacki (Reptilia, Serpentes, Viperidae). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 30: 209-211.

Further reading[edit]

  • Smith, M.A. 1940. The Amphibians and Reptiles obtained by Mr. Ronald Kaulback in Upper Burma. Records of the Indian Museum 42: 465-486. (Protobothrops kaulbacki, p. 485, Plate VIII, Figure 5.)

External links[edit]