USS Walter S. Brown (DE-258)
|Name:||USS Walter S. Brown|
|Laid down:||10 January 1943|
|Launched:||22 February 1943|
|Commissioned:||25 June 1943|
|Decommissioned:||4 October 1945|
|Struck:||24 October 1945|
|1 battle star (World War II)|
|Fate:||Sold for scrapping, 1946|
|Type:||Evarts-class destroyer escort|
|Beam:||35 ft 2 in (10.72 m)|
|Draft:||11 ft (3.4 m) (max)|
|Speed:||19 knots (35 km/h; 22 mph)|
|Range:||4,150 nmi (7,690 km)|
|Complement:||15 officers and 183 enlisted|
USS Walter S. Brown (DE-258) was an Evarts-class destroyer escort of the United States Navy during World War II. She was deployed into high-risk North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean waters to protect convoys and other ships from German submarines and fighter aircraft. She performed escort and anti-submarine operations in battle areas before sailing back to the States, victorious, at the end of the conflict.
She was laid down on 10 January 1943 at Boston, Massachusetts, by the Boston Navy Yard; launched on 22 February 1943; sponsored by Mrs. Garth Thomas; and commissioned on 25 June 1943, Lt. Comdr. W. L. Harmon in command.
- 1 World War II North Atlantic operations
- 2 Preparations for German Air Attacks
- 3 Shadowed by German Air Observation Aircraft
- 4 The German Aircraft Attack
- 5 Attack by German Aircraft Defeated
- 6 Commendation from the Convoy Commander
- 7 End-of-War Activities
- 8 Final Decommissioning
- 9 Awards
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
World War II North Atlantic operations
Following shakedown in Casco Bay, Maine, Walter S. Brown joined Escort Division (CortDiv) 5 and began escorting convoys across the Atlantic to Gibraltar and North African ports. By the spring of 1944, she had completed four such round-trip voyages, keeping a vigilant watch for Axis submarines and aircraft as she shepherded the merchantmen. Interspersed between these voyages were periods of refresher training and availability.
On 20 April 1944, Walter S. Brown arrived at Hampton Roads, Virginia, to join the screen of UGS-40. Three days later, this group — which included some 65 merchantmen — sailed for the Mediterranean. The screen, led by Campbell (WPG-32) contained three elderly flush-decked, four-pipe destroyers, six American destroyer escorts from CortDiv 5, and two French destroyer escorts.
Preparations for German Air Attacks
Due to the success of recent attacks by the German Luftwaffe against Allied convoys in the western Mediterranean, UGS-40 sailed with an elaborate air defense plan, formulated by the convoy's screen commander, Comdr. Jesse C. Sowell, in Campbell. Practiced in Hampton Roads prior to the convoy's departure and as it crossed the Atlantic, these tactics were designed to meet mass aerial attacks by German aircraft carrying a variety of weapons ranging from bombs, to torpedoes, to radio-controlled glider bombs. Only a short time before, such a complex attack had devastatingly mauled UGS-38.
Off Gibraltar, UGS-40 acquired additional escorts — British anti-aircraft cruiser HMS Caledon, USS Wilhoite (DE-397) and Benson (DD-421), and two American minesweepers carrying special apparatus to jam radar transmissions and thus confuse the German glider bombs. A British salvage tug brought up the rear of the reinforcements.
Shadowed by German Air Observation Aircraft
On 9 May, the convoy passed through the Strait of Gibraltar without incident but, two days later, detected German "snoopers" trailing the convoy. In the next few hours, 10 successive shore-based fighter interception sorties — even sorties conducted by British radar-equipped Beaufighters — failed to drive off the enemy reconnaissance aircraft. The Germans persistently maintained contact with the Allied ships.
First alerted by shore-based radar "eyes", the escort screen went to general quarters at 1316 on 11 May, beginning the first of five successive "on again—off again" alerts. Walter S. Brown took station on the starboard bow of the convoy, some 6,000 yards (5,000 m) from the guide. In Campbell, the commander of the screen, Jesse Clyburn Sowell, enjoined his escorts to be especially vigilant and warned that a dusk attack was well within the realm of possibility. At 2025, radar noted the approach of enemy aircraft; and Sowell formed his charges into eight columns 1,000 yards (1,000 m) apart to allow for plenty of maneuvering room. As UGS-40 went to general quarters at 2043 that evening, Dobler (DE-48) and Ellis (DD-154) took stations on Walter S. Brown's flanks.
When the enemy was reported 70 miles (110 km) north of Cape Corbelin, UGS-40 steered due east, through a smooth sea barely rippled by the light easterly airs, past Cape Bengut. Eleven minutes after sunset beneath a moonless, overcast sky, Walter S. Brown received orders to commence laying smoke.
The German Aircraft Attack
The Germans — a mixed force of Ju-88's, He. 111's, and Do. 217's — approached from the stern of the convoy and broke into groups to attack from different points of the compass. Eight minutes after the initial sightings, the first German aircraft came in low and fast and entered Walter S. Brown's defense sector. The destroyer escort trained her guns on two aircraft, but these targets quickly slipped out of range. Two more, however, then came into range. Walter S. Brown commenced fire with her forward 20-millimeter and 3-inch battery and scored hits on both aircraft. One climbed for a moment into a steep, almost vertical bank but then faltered and crashed astern of the ship.
Seconds later, a fifth aircraft bore in fast across the destroyer escort's bow and her starboard side and crossed over to port. Both Walter S. Brown and Dobler deluged the aircraft in a murderous cross-fire of 20-millimeter and 1.1-inch (28 mm) guns that slapped it into the sea. "Almost immediately", wrote Lt. Comdr. Louis B. Burdette, USNR, in his action report, "another single plane was reported coming in from ahead." Again all forward guns swung about, tracked their target, and opened fire as the aircraft swung right to attempt to launch a torpedo at the lead, escorts. Despite the fact that they could not hear the bearings being called out from the bridge over the sound-powered phones, the gunners manning the Oerlikons kept up a withering fire which forced the fifth enemy away.
Attack by German Aircraft Defeated
When the smoke of battle cleared, the Allied force had emerged unscathed from the German gauntlet. Walter S. Brown, which had taken six enemy aircraft under fire during the seven-minute engagement, dropped astern at 2153 — in company with the Evarts (DE-5), British tug Hengist, and French coastal escort Cimieterre — to search for possible casualties. After a prolonged and thorough search in which they found nothing, the ships returned to the convoy for the remainder of the voyage.
Commendation from the Convoy Commander
Of UGS-40's defense, Comdr. Sowell had high praise for the men and ships of the convoy's screen and was especially complimentary in judging Walter S. Brown's performance. "It is believed", he wrote, "that her performance, when coordinated with the other forces present, broke up the enemy's attack, disrupted his plans, and resulted in no Allied losses; whereas, the enemy suffered a heavy loss of planes."
For the remainder of the war in Europe, Walter S. Brown continued to escort convoys on round trips from the east coast of the United States to North African ports. Then, in the summer of 1945, she operated briefly in training exercises with submarines off the northeast coast of the United States.
Decommissioned at the New York Naval Shipyard on 4 October 1945, Walter S. Brown was struck from the Navy List on 24 October 1945. Her scrapping by the New York Naval Shipyard was completed by 12 July 1946.
- This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entries can be found here and here.
- Photo gallery of USS Walter S. Brown at NavSource Naval History