User:Emijrp/All Human Knowledge

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Preserving all human knowledge for posterity. It is all-important.
Wikimedia servers, holding terabytes of text and images.[2]
This page, a catalogue of catalogues of all human knowledge, is only 316,932 bytes in size. It can be stored on a 5¼-inch floppy disk.
The 1 billionth edit for all Wikimedia projects took place on April 16, 2010. (See counter)
The Voyager Golden Records are phonograph records (listen in YouTube) which were included aboard both Voyager spacecraft launched in 1977. They contain sounds and images selected to portray the diversity of life and culture on Earth, and are intended for any intelligent extraterrestrial life form, or for future humans, who may find them.
Imagine a universe in which every planet shares in the sum of all knowledge.

The idea of compiling all human knowledge in a single work, although not in a single place,[3] is highly seductive. In this project, we attempt to study how many articles are needed to cover the sum of all human knowledge. As of July 2017, English Wikipedia has 5,434,751 articles[4] and Wikidata includes 27,721,774 items.[5] This page still in expansion estimates that the total notable articles figure is over 104,701,020. At current creation rate, 8,000 new items per day,[6] Wikidata singularity will occur in 2040s, in the same date range of technological singularity.[7] It will be the first time in history that all human knowledge is stored in a machine-readable format and ready to be consumed, understood and used by computers or any device.

Many individuals devoted their lifes to different efforts of knowledge compilation and preservation. Some inspiring cases are Vivian Maier, a nanny that took 150,000 photographs during her lifetime primarily of people and architecture;[8] Paul Mawhinney, who archived a copy of every sold album growing a 3 million vinyls collection;[9] Henry Spencer, a computer scientist that preserved over 2 million Usenet messages onto magnetic tapes[10] or Marion Stokes, who recorded hundreds of thousands of hours of television news footage spanning 35 years.[11]

Before Wikipedia, there were many attemps to compile all human knowledge in a single work. Some examples sorted by date include:

Also, hypothetical cases exist: Encyclopædia Galactica (1980) by Carl Sagan in Cosmos, Permanent World Encyclopaedia (1936–1938) by H. G. Wells and Memex (1945) by Vannevar Bush. Finally, there are imaginary examples too: "The Universal Library" (1901) by Kurd Lasswitz, "The Total Library" essay and The Library of Babel (1941) by Jorge Luis Borges, Encyclopædia Galactica (1942) in "Foundation" by Isaac Asimov and the Akashic records.

Furthermore, there are thousands of archives, libraries and museums all over the world preserving human knowledge in several formats: books, manuscripts, journals, newspapers, magazines, sound and music recordings, videos, play-scripts, patents, databases, maps, stamps, prints, drawings and more. Some of the largest ones are: the British Library in the United Kingdom (170 million items[12]), the Library of Congress in the United States (155 million items[13]), the Russian State Library in Russia (43 million items[14]), the National Diet Library in Japan (35 million items[15]), the National Library of China (31 million items[16]) and the Bibliothèque nationale de France (31 million items[17]).

This project is focused in those entities which are notable and deserve an article in Wikipedia. For completeness of sister projects, see § Sister projects. For an estimate about lost knowledge, see § Destroyed knowledge and Wikipedia:There is a deadline. There is available a userbox {{User All Human Knowledge}} and a shortcut WP:AHK.

You are welcome to improve this page, be bold!

Summary[edit]

Arts[edit]

The arts are composed of many endeavors (or artforms) united by their employment of the human creative impulse.

Architecture[edit]

Architecture (Latin architectura, from the Greek ἀρχιτέκτων – arkhitekton, from ἀρχι- "chief" and τέκτων "builder, carpenter, mason") is both the process and product of planning, designing and construction. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural and political symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements.

Note: some of these items may overlap

Monuments[edit]

A monument is a type of structure either explicitly created to commemorate a person or important event or which has become important to a social group as a part of their remembrance of historic times or cultural heritage, or simply as an example of historic architecture.

For more monuments figures, see Commons:Monuments database/Statistics. For a map, see Wiki Loves Monuments map.

Cinema and television[edit]

A film is a series of still or moving images. It is produced by recording photographic images with cameras, or by creating images using animation techniques or visual effects. The process of filmmaking has developed into an art form and industry. See also Category:Film-related lists.

This section excludes biographies.

Crafts[edit]

A craft is a branch of a profession that requires some particular kind of skilled work. In historical sense, particularly as pertinent to the Medieval history and earlier, the term is usually applied towards people occupied in small-scale production of goods. See also Outline of crafts and Category:Glossaries of crafts.

Literature[edit]

Literature (from Latin litterae (plural); letter) is the art of written works. The word literature literally means: "things made from letters". Literature is commonly classified as having two major forms—fiction and non-fiction—and two major techniques—poetry and prose.

Theatres are counted in #Architecture.

This section excludes biographies and libraries.

Performing arts[edit]

Performing arts are a form of art in which artists use their voices and/or their bodies, often in relation to other objects, to convey artistic expression. It is different from visual arts, which is when artists use paint/canvas or various materials to create physical or static art objects. Performing arts include several disciplines, each performed in front of a live audience.

Visual arts[edit]

Visual arts are a form of art in which artists use paint, canvas or various materials to create physical or static art objects.

Geography[edit]

Geography is the science that studies the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of Earth. This section covers every human geography settlement and every physical geography location in the world.

See also Category:Geography-related lists, Category:Lists of places, GEOnet Names Server[74] and Geonames.[75]

Human geography[edit]

1570 world map by Abraham Ortelius.

Human geography is the branch of the social sciences that deals with the study of people and their communities, cultures, economies and interaction with the environment by noticing their relations with and across space and place.[76] As an intellectual discipline, geography is divided into the sub-fields of physical geography and human geography, the latter concentrating upon the study of human activities, by the application of qualitative and quantitative research methods.

Africa[edit]

Africa

Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent. At about 30.3 million km² (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers six per cent of Earth's total surface area and 20.4 per cent of its total land area. With 1.1 billion people as of 2013, it accounts for about 15% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, both the Suez Canal and the Red Sea along the Sinai Peninsula to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The continent includes Madagascar and various archipelagos. It contains 54 fully recognized sovereign states (countries), nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition.

Africa hosts a large diversity of ethnicities, cultures and languages. In the late 19th century European countries colonized most of Africa. Africa also varies greatly with regard to environments, economics, historical ties and government systems. However, most present states in Africa originate from a process of decolonization in the 20th century.

Asia[edit]

Asia

Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres and sharing the continental landmass of Eurasia with the continent of Europe. Asia covers an area of 44,579,000 square kilometres (17,212,000 sq mi), about 30% of Earth's total land area and 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area. The continent, which has long been home to the majority of the human population,[78] was the site of many of the first civilizations. Asia is notable for not only its overall large size and population, but also dense and large settlements as well as vast barely populated regions within the continent of 4.4 billion people. Asia has 49 recognized states, 5 partially recognized and unrecognized states and 6 dependent territories and other territories.

Given its size and diversity, the concept of Asia—a name dating back to classical antiquity—may actually have more to do with human geography than physical geography.[79] Asia varies greatly across and within its regions with regard to ethnic groups, cultures, environments, economics, historical ties and government systems. It also has a mix of many different climates ranging from the equatorial south via the hot desert in the Middle East, temperate areas in the east and the extremely continental centre to vast subarctic and polar areas in Siberia.

Europe[edit]

Europe

Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The eastern boundary with Asia is a historical and cultural construct, as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them; Europe is generally considered as separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.

Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire, during the migration period, marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of an era known as the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art, and science led to the modern era. From the Age of Discovery onwards, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas, most of Africa, Oceania, and the majority of Asia.

Europe has 50 recognised states, 6 partially recognised states, 6 dependent territories and 2 special areas of internal sovereignty.

North America[edit]

North America

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea.

North America has 23 sovereign states, 11 dependent territories and 16 other areas.

South America[edit]

South America

South America is a continent located in the western hemisphere, mostly in the southern hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the northern hemisphere. It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean; North America and the Caribbean Sea lie to the northwest.

Most of the population lives near the continent's western or eastern coasts while the interior and the far south are sparsely populated. The geography of western South America is dominated by the Andes mountains; in contrast, the eastern part contains both highland regions and large lowlands where rivers such as the Amazon, Orinoco, and Paraná flow. Most of the continent lies in the tropics.

The continent's cultural and ethnic outlook has its origin with the interaction of indigenous peoples with European conquerors and immigrants and, more locally, with African slaves. Given a long history of colonialism, the overwhelming majority of South Americans speak Portuguese or Spanish, and societies and states commonly reflect Western traditions.

South America has 13 sovereign states, 2 dependent territories and 1 integral territories of states outside of South America.

Oceania[edit]

Oceania

Oceania is a region centred on the islands of the tropical Pacific Ocean. The term was coined as Océanie circa 1812 by geographer Conrad Malte-Brun. The history of Oceania in the medieval period was synonymous with the history of the indigenous peoples of Australasia, Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia. The arrival of European settlers in subsequent centuries resulted in a significant alteration in the social and political landscape of Oceania.

Opinions of what constitutes Oceania range from its three subregions of Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia to, more broadly, the entire insular region between Southeast Asia and the Americas, including Australasia and the Malay Archipelago.

Oceania has 14 sovereign states, 2 states not members of the United Nations and 26 other territories.

Antarctica[edit]

Antarctica

Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean.


Physical geography[edit]

Physical geography is that branch of natural science which deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere, as opposed to the cultural or built environment, the domain of human geography.

History[edit]

History (from Greek ἱστορία - historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the discovery, collection, organization, and presentation of information about past events. See also Outline of history.

  • A coup d'état, also known as a coup, a putsch, or an overthrow, is the sudden deposition of a government, usually by a small group of the existing state establishment—typically the military—to depose the extant government and replace it with another body, civil or military.
  • A disaster is a natural or man-made (or technological) hazard resulting in an event of substantial extent causing significant physical damage or destruction, loss of life, or drastic change to the environment. See also Lists of disasters and List of disasters by cost.
  • An election is a formal decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office. Elections have been the usual mechanism by which modern representative democracy has operated since the 17th century. Elections may fill offices in the legislature, sometimes in the executive and judiciary, and for regional and local government.
  • Military history is a humanities discipline within the scope of general historical recording of armed conflict in the history of humanity, and its impact on the societies, their cultures, economies and changing intra and international relationships. WP:MHA#Statistics has over 127,000 articles as of this listing.
  • A revolution (from the Latin revolutio, "a turn around") is a fundamental change in power or organizational structures that takes place in a relatively short period of time.

GLAM[edit]

GLAM is an acronym for "galleries, libraries, archives, and museums", although other versions of the acronym exist, such as LAM, which incorporates only libraries, archives, and museums. More generally, GLAMs are publicly funded, publicly accountable institutions collecting cultural heritage materials.

  • An archive is an accumulation of historical records, or the physical place they are located. Archives contain primary source documents that have accumulated over the course of an individual or organization's lifetime, and are kept to show the function of that person or organization.
  • A library is an organized collection of information resources made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. It provides physical or digital access to material, and may be a physical building or room, or a virtual space, or both.
  • A museum is an institution that cares for (conserves) a collection of artifacts and other objects of scientific, artistic, cultural, or historical importance and makes them available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary.