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Dish washing (British English: washing up) is the process of cleaning cooking utensils, dishes, cutlery and other items to prevent foodborne illness. This is either achieved by hand in a sink or using dishwasher and may take place in a kitchen, utility room, scullery or elsewhere. In Britain to do the washing up also includes to dry and put away. There are cultural divisions over rinsing and drying after washing.
Dish washing is usually done using an implement for the washer to wield, unless done using an automated dishwasher. Commonly used implements include cloths, sponges, brushes or even steel wool. As fingernails are often more effective than soft implements like cloths at dislodging hard particles, washing simply with the hands is also done and can be effective as well. Dishwashing detergent is also generally used, but bar soap can be used acceptably, as well. Rubber gloves are often worn when washing dishes by people who are sensitive to hot water or dish-washing liquids. According to dermatologists, the use of protective gloves is highly recommended whenever working with water and cleaning products, since some chemicals may damage the skin, or allergies may develop in some individuals. Dish gloves are also worn by those who simply don't want to touch the old food particles. Many people also wear aprons.
Running water or sink
A major variation in method is the temperature and state of the water. Asians and Latin Americans usually prefer running water because it is seen as being more hygienic as the water is not being reused, and usually use cold water. This is practical in environments where hot water is rarely available from the tap, and sinks are perceived as dirty surfaces (essentially a convenient drain). Westerners usually prefer standing hot water. This is practical in environments where hot water is cheaply and easily available, and sinks are perceived as clean surfaces (essentially a bowl with a convenient drainage device). In this method, the sink is usually first filled with dirty dishes (which may have already been rinsed and scraped to remove most food) and hot, soapy water. The detergent is added while the sink is filling with water, so a layer of suds forms at the top. Then the dishes are washed one by one and thoroughly rinsed to remove the grease dislodged by soap and mechanical action as well as the soap itself, then placed on a rack to begin drying, or dried and put away immediately by a second person. When the sink is empty, if there are more dishes to be washed they may be added to the same dishwater, or the sink may be drained and refilled if clean, hot dishwater is desired.
Separate tub in the sink
In some European countries, the dishes are generally washed in a separate tub placed inside the sink. This practice may have started as a matter of hygiene, as the kitchen sink was the only sink available for all the household water. The clothes were washed in the sink; the water used to wash the floor went down the sink, and so it made sense to separate the dishwater from the sink. There were two other possible reasons: First, kitchen sinks tended to be very large in a time when heating water was considered to be a major household expense; a tub used less water. Second, kitchen sinks were usually made of hard ceramic; any contact between the sink and plates was likely to cause chips, but a tub could be made of more forgiving material. Using a separate washing-up bowl in the sink also provides a place (down the gap between bowl and sink) to dispose of unfinished drink, soaking-water, etc. Using the gap for disposal of waste water requires extra vigilance to make sure food particles and other waste are not trapped under the bowl.
Most institutions have a dish-washing machine which sanitizes dishes by a final rinse in either very hot water or a chemical sanitizing solution such as dilute bleach solution (50-100 parts per million chlorine; about 2 ml of 5% bleach per litre of water, approximately one capful bleach per gallon water). Dishes are placed on large trays and fed onto rollers through the machine. Dishwashers typically exceed 145 °F (63 °C) and kill all germs, while hand-washing reaches temperatures of at most 104 °F (40 °C).
While not environmentally friendly, the use of bleach is critical to sanitation when large groups are involved: it evaporates completely, it is cheap, and it kills most germs. Cabinets, refrigerators, countertops, and anything else touched by people in a large group setting should be periodically wiped or sprayed with a dilute bleach solution after being washed with soapy water and rinsed in clean water.
However, bleach is less effective in the presence of organic debris, so a small amount of food residue can be enough to permit survival of, e.g., Salmonella bacteria. Scrubbing followed by soaking in bleach is effective at reducing Salmonella contamination, but even this method does not completely eliminate Salmonella bacteria.
In hand-washing, plastic brushes with nylon bristles are preferred to washcloths or sponges, which can spread microorganisms. Use of soap or sanitizer is mandatory in washing by hand in public food facilities.
Traditional dish-washing practice
Traditionally, dish washing is done by scrubbing the utensils with wet fabric dipped in scrub ash (abu gosok) to scrub away the dirt. The utensils are then rinsed in clean water and hung to drip dry. Scrub ash is specially made by burning wood for dish washing.
In popular culture
- Dishwasher Pete, or Pete Jordan, is a fanzine author whose goal was to wash dishes in every state in the United States.
- The Dishwasher: Dead Samurai is an Xbox Live Arcade game in which the protagonist is an undead dishwasher.
- Utada Hikaru can be seen washing dishes in the music video Hikari.
- Dishdogz is a 2005 film about a boy who's working as a dishwasher during his summer break.
- In his book Down and Out in Paris and London by George Orwell, he describes his experience working as a dishwasher or plongeur in a French hotel in 1929. He describes the job, the interactions with other employees, and his thoughts on the place of a plongeur in society.
- Harder, Ben (28 October 2014). "How to Wash Up in the Wilderness". Science News. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
- "The cultural divide on washing dishes: Brits vs. Americans". Retrieved 24 December 2014.
- Jaffe, Alexandra. "It's Settled: Dishwashers Beat the Lowly Hand, Almost Every Time". The Atlantic. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
- Weese JS, Rousseau J (September 2006). "Survival of Salmonella Copenhagen in food bowls following contamination with experimentally inoculated raw meat: effects of time, cleaning, and disinfection". Can. Vet. J. 47 (9): 887–9. PMC . PMID 17017654.
- page 190 in Michael S. Bisesi; Koren, Herman (2002). Handbook of Environmental Health, Volume I: Biological, Chemical, and Physical Agents of Environmentally Related Disease. Boca Raton: CRC Press. ISBN 1-56670-536-3.
- Only rinsed used utensils under running water may be a major offense upon inspection: County of Sacramento. Retail Food Facility. Official Inspection Report. 06/04/2009[permanent dead link]
Media related to Dish washing at Wikimedia Commons