Weimar Saxon Grand Ducal Art School

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The Art School Building, now the main building of the Bauhaus-University Weimar.

The Weimar Saxon-Grand Ducal Art School (Großherzoglich-Sächsische Kunstschule Weimar) was created on October 1, 1860, by a decree of Charles Alexander, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. It existed until 1910, at which time it was promoted to a "Hochschule". It should not be confused with the Weimar Princely Free Drawing School, which existed from 1776 to 1930 and, after 1860, served as a preparatory school.

History of this Art School[edit]

From 1870 to 1900, the students and teachers of the school turned away from the academic tradition of idealized compositions. Inspired by the Barbizon School, they went directly to nature for their inspiration, in genre as well as landscape painting. This approach set the school apart and attracted attention throughout Europe.

The follower, the Grand Ducal Saxon School of Visual Arts of Weimar[edit]

In 1910, William Ernest, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, in cooperation with Hans Olde (Director of the Art School), Adolf Brütt (Director of the Sculpture School) and Henry van de Velde (Director of the School of Arts & Crafts), joined the three schools to create a new Hochschule: The "Grand Ducal Saxon School of Visual Arts in Weimar", headed by Fritz Mackensen. Several more transformations led to the school's becoming part of the Bauhaus-University Weimar.

The Art School Building[edit]

View of the entryway, with "Eve".

The Art School Building (also called the "Studio Building") was constructed in two phases: 1904/05 and 1911, on the former Art School Road from plans drawn up by Henry van de Velde. Both buildings are true to the principles of Jugendstil regarding functionality and appropriate use of materials. As the founding place of the Bauhaus movement, it has been one of the most important arts schools of the century. Of particular note in the building's interior are the Oberlichtsaal (skylight hall), the elliptical staircase and the statue of Eve by Auguste Rodin.

In December 1996, the building (together with the former Arts & Crafts School) was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In 1999, it was restored to an approximation of its original appearance by architect Thomas van den Valentyn and his team. This restoration included the "Gropiuszimmer"; the room that served as Walter Gropius' office when he was the director, which was returned to its former state, c.1925. The building now houses the School of Architecture, the Design Department, the Dean's office and the Rector's office.

Associated people[edit]

Directors and lecturers[edit]

By date of appointment.

Name Life Class Teacher (dates) Director (dates) Pupils Notes
Stanislaus von Kalckreuth 1820–1894 1860–1876
Alexander Michelis 1823–1888 1863–1868
Arnold Böcklin 1827–1901 1860–1862
Arthur von Ramberg 1819–1875 1860–1866
Carl Hummel 1821-? Landscape painting 1860-?
Franz von Lenbach 1836–1904 1860-?
Johann Wilhelm Cordes 1824–1869 1860–1869
Reinhold Begas 1831–1911 1861-(1863?)
Ferdinand Pauwels 1830–1904 History painting 1862–1872
Bernhard Plockhorst 1825–1907 History and portrait painting, Drawing 1866–1869
Paul Thumann 1834–1908 Genre painting 1866-? A former pupil of
F. Pauwels
Max Schmidt 1818–1901 1868–1872
Charles Verlat 1824–1890 Animal painting 1869-?
Karl Gussow 1843–1907 1870
Theodor Hagen 1841–1919 Landscape painting 1871 1877–1881 Also taught from 1881
Albert Baur 1835–1906 1872-(1876?)
Ferdinand Schauss 1832–1916 Portrait and genre painting 1873–1876
Franz Gustav Arndt 1842-? Landscape painting 1876-? Former pupil,
ab 1879 Secretary of the School of Arts
Willem Linnig der Jüngere 1849-? Genre and history painting 1876-? Former pupil
Alexander Struys 1852-1941 History painting 1878-1882
Albert Heinrich Brendel 1827–1895 Animal painting  ? 1882–1885
Max Thedy 1858–1924 1883
Leopold von Kalckreuth 1855–1928 1885–1890 Former pupil,
son of Stanislaus Kalckreuth
Edgar Meyer 1853-1925 1886-?
Hans Olde 1855–1917 1902?-? Established the Kunstschule
as a Hochschule
Ludwig von Hofmann 1861–1945 1903–1907 Founder of the Neues Weimar movement
Gari Melchers 1860–1932 1909–1914 American (German father)
Albin Egger-Lienz 1868–1926 1912–1913
Theodor Schindler 1870–1950 1913–1914
Walther Klemm 1883–1957 Graphics 1913–?

Well-known pupils[edit]

Biography[edit]

  • Walther Scheidig: Die Weimarer Malerschule. Seemann, Leipzig 1991, ISBN 3-363-00538-5.
  • Hendrik Ziegler: Die Kunst der Weimarer Malerschule. Von der Pleinairmalerei zum Impressionismus. Böhlau, Köln, Weimar, Wien 2001, ISBN 3-412-15400-8.
  • Gerda Wendemann et al.: Hinaus in die Natur: Barbizon, die Weimarer Malerschule und der Aufbruch zum Impressionismus. Christoph Kerber Verlag, Bielefeld 2010, ISBN 978-3-8667-8381-2.
  • Jutta Hülsewig-Johnen, Thomas Kellein: Der Deutsche Impressionismus. DuMont-Buchverlag, Köln 2009, ISBN 978-3-8321-9274-7.
  • Renate Müller-Krumbach, Karl Schawelka, Norbert Korrek, Gerwin Zohlen: Die Belebung des Stoffes durch die Form. Van de Veldes Hochschulbau in Weimar. Verlag der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Weimar 2002, ISBN 978-3-86068-166-4.
  • Silke Opitz (Hrsg.): Van de Veldes Kunstschulbauten in Weimar. Architektur und Ausstattung. Verlag der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Weimar 2004, ISBN 3-86068-201-6.
  • Michael Eckhardt (Hrsg.): Bauhaus-Spaziergang. In Weimar unterwegs auf den Spuren des frühen Bauhauses. Verlag der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Weimar 2009, ISBN 978-3-86068-378-1.
  • Frank Simon-Ritz, Klaus-Jürgen Winkler, Gerd Zimmermann (Hrsg.): Aber wir sind! Wir wollen! Und wir schaffen! Von der Großherzoglichen Kunstschule zur Bauhaus-Universität. Verlag der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Weimar 2010, ISBN 978-3-86068-419-1.
  • Schlenker, Sabine (2007): Mit dem Talent der Augen. Der Kunstkritiker Emil Heilbut (1861-1921) Ein Streiter für die moderne Kunst im Deutschen Kaiserreich, VDG-Verlag Weimar, ISBN 978-3-89739-563-3.
  • Müllerschön, Bernd und Maier, Thomas (2002): Die Maler der Schule von Barbizon – Wegbereiter des Impressionismus, Ed. Thombe, ISBN 978-3-93525201-0.
  • Stapf, Peter (2014): Der Maler Max Thedy 1858–1924, Böhlau Verlag Köln∙Weimar∙Wien, ISBN 978-3-412-22264-2.
  • Fuß, Rowena (2013): Christian Rohlfs in Weimar: Das Frühwerk: 1870-1901 (Vorreiter ohne Vorbild), VDG-Verlag Weimar, ISBN 978-3-8973-9791-0.
  • Plaul, Jens M. (2009): Max Oehler: Auf den Spuren eines Landschaftsmalers in Nachfolge der Weimarer Malerschule, 2. Auflage, Arbeitskreis Stadtgeschichte Blankenhain, ISBN 978-3-0000-4335-2
  • Merseburger, Peter (2013): Mythos Weimar: Zwischen Geist und Macht, Pantheon Verlag München, ISBN 978-3-5705-5208-7.
  • Häder, Ulf (1999): Der Jungbrunnen für die Malerei, Holland und die deutsche Kunst 1850–1900, page 168–171 and 286. Jena.
  • Mai, Ekkehard (2010): Die Deutschen Kunstakademien im 19. Jahrhundert, Künstlerausbildung zwischen Tradition und Avantgarde, Böhlau Verlag Köln Weimar Wien, ISBN 978-3 412-20498-3.
  • Whitford, Frank (1984): Bauhaus (Wold of Art), Thames and Hudson Ltd., London, ISBN 978-0-500-20193-0
  • Seemann, E.A. (2000): Karl Buchholz, 1849-1889: Ein Künstler der Weimarer Malerschule, Seemann-Verlag, ISBN 978-3-363-00733-6.
  • Dauer, Horst (1983): Die Weimarer Malerschule, Leipzig, Seemann-Verlag, ASIN B0026OK8UA.
  • Deshmukh, Marion F. (2015): Max Liebermann Modern Art and Modern Germany, Ashgate Farnham, ISBN 978-1-4724-3415-9.

External links[edit]