Woodcock–Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities

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The Woodcock–Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities is a set of intelligence tests first developed in 1977 by Richard Woodcock and Mary E. Bonner Johnson.[1] It was revised in 1989, again in 2001, and most recently in 2014; this last version is commonly referred to as the WJ IV.[2] They may be administered to children from age two right up to the oldest adults (with norms utilizing individuals in their 90s). The previous edition WJ III was praised for covering "a wide variety of cognitive skills."[3]

Content of the tests[edit]

The Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities include both the Standard Battery and the Extended Battery. The Standard Battery consists of tests 1 through 10 while the Extended Battery includes tests 11 through 20. There is also a Woodcock-Johnson III Diagnostic Supplement to the Tests of Cognitive Abilities with an additional 11 cognitive tests.[4] All of which combined allows for a considerably detailed analysis of cognitive abilities. The Cattell–Horn–Carroll theory factors that this test examines are based on 9 broad stratum abilities which are: Comprehension-Knowledge, Long-Term Retrieval, Visual-Spatial Thinking, Auditory Processing, Fluid Reasoning, Processing Speed, Short-Term Memory, Quantitative Knowledge and Reading-Writing.[4] A General Intellectual Ability (GIA) or Brief Intellectual Ability (BIA) may be obtained. The BIA score is derived from three cognitive tests which include Verbal Comprehension, Concept Formation, and Visual Matching. These three cognitive tests measure three abilities; Comprehension-Knowledge (Gc), Fluid Reasoning (Gf), and Processing Speed (Gs), which best represents an individual's verbal ability, thinking ability, and efficiency in performing cognitive tasks. The BIA takes about 10 to 15 minutes to administer and is especially useful for screenings, re-evaluations that don't require a comprehensive intellectual assessment, or research that needs a short but reliable measure of intelligence.[5] On the other hand, the GIA obtained from the WJ III Tests of Cognitive Abilities provide a more comprehensive assessment of general ability (g) and the score is based on a weighted combination of tests that best represents a common ability underlying all intellectual performance.[5]

List of Tests[edit]

Test Broad Ability Narrow Ability Test Description
Numerical Reasoning Gf Quantitative Reasoning Participants must determine numerical sequences and

determine a two-dimensional numerical pattern

Concept Formation Gf Induction Participants must identify rules that make up geometric figures after

being exposed to concepts.

Analysis Synthesis Gf General Sequential Reasoning Participants must analyze the structure of an

incomplete logic puzzle and to solve the missing parts

Block Rotation Gv Mental rotation, Visualization Participants must choose geometric designs that

match another design which have been physically rotated to a

to a different position.

Spatial Relations Gv Spatial Relations Participants must select the component parts of

whole shape

Pattern Recognition Gv Visual Memory Participants must study five images, remember them and recognize

them in a larger set of ither arranged images.

Visual Matching Gs Perceptual Speed Participants must quickly find and circle two

identical numbers in a row of six numbers in 3 minutes.

Decision Speed Gs Mental Comparison Speed Participants must quickly analyze a row of images and

mark two images that are the most closely related in 3 minutes.

Cross out Gs Perceptual Speed & Rate of Test Taking Participants must mark drawings that are identical to

the first drawing in the row in 3 mins.

Rapid Picture Naming Gs Naming Facility Participants must quickly name a series of

pictures as fast as possible.

Retrieval Fluency Glr Ideational Fluency Participants must state as many words from specified

categories as possible in 1 minute

Visual Auditory Learning : Delayed Glr Associative Memory Participants must recall and relearn (after a 30-

minute to 8-day delay) symbols presented in

Visual-Auditory Learning

Visual Auditory Learning Glr Associative Memory Participants must translate visual symbols after being given

orally presented words that are associated with them.

Memory For Names Glr Associative Memory Participants must remember an increasingly large

number of names of novel cartoon characters

Memory For Names: Delayed Glr Associative Memory Participants must recall and relearn (after a 30-

minute to 8-day delay) names of novel cartoon

Sound Blending Ga Phonetic Coding Synthesis Participants must listen to a series of individual

syllables, individual phonemes, or both that form

words and name the complete words

Incomplete Words Ga Phonetic Coding Analysis Participants must listen to words with one or more

phonemes missing and name the complete words

Sound Patterns Ga Speech Sound Discrimination Participants must indicate whether pairs of complex

sound patterns are the same or different. The

patterns may differ in pitch, rhythm, or sound

content

Auditory Working Memory Gsm Working Memory Participants must listen to a mixed series of words

and digits and then to rearrange them by first

saying the words in order and then the numbers

Numbers Reversed Gsm Working Memory Participants must repeat a series of random numbers

backward

Memory For Words Gsm Memory Span Participants must repeat lists of unrelated words in

the correct sequence

Memory For Sentences Gsm Memory Span Participants must repeat complete sentences
Picture Vocabulary Gc Lexical Knowledge Participants must name familiar and unfamiliar

pictured objects

Verbal Comprehension Gc Language Development & Lexical Knowledge Participants must name familiar and unfamiliar

pictured objects and then say words similar in meaning to

word presented, say words that are opposites in

meaning to the word presented, and complete

phrases with words that complete analogies

General Information Gc General Information Participants must provide

characteristics of objects by responding to

questions, such as “Where you would find . . .?”

and “What you would do with . . .?

Academic Knowledge Gc General Information Participants must provide information about

biological and physical sciences, history,

geography, government, economics, art,

music, and literature

Oral Comprehension Gc Listening Ability Participants must listen to a short passage and orally

supply the word missing at the end of the passage

Story Recall Gc Listening Ability Participants must listen to a short passage and

describe the details

Verbal attention (WJIV only) Gsm Working memory capacity Participants must listen to a series of numbers and animal words mixed together and answer questions regarding the sequence.
Number series (WJIV only) Gf Quantitative reasoning Participants have to identify the correct number in a series of number that correctly completed the series. Ex. (2,4,?,8,10.....)
Letter-Pattern Matching (WJIV only) Gs Perceptual speed Participants must quickly find and circle identical letters and patterns.
Visualization (WJIV only) Gv Mental rotation, Visualization Participants must identify two sets of 2D pieces that form a specific shape. Participants must also identify two sets of 3D rotated blocks that match another shape.
Phonological Processing (WJIV only) Ga Phonetic coding, Word fluency Participants must name words that beings with a certain sound. Participants must also use parts of words to create new ones.
Nonword Repetition (WJIV only) Ga Phonetic coding Participants must listen to a nonsense word and repeat the word exactly.
Segmentation (WJIV only) Ga Phonetic coding Participants must listen to words and break it into syllables and phonemes.

Citation:[6][7]

G General factor
Gf General Factor - Fluid Intelligence
Gv General Factor - Visual-spatial ability
Gs General Factor - Processing Speed
Glr General Factor - Long Term Retrieval
Ga General Factor - Auditory Processing
Gsm General Factor - Short Term Memory
Gc General Factor - Crystallized Intelligence

Citation:[6][8][9]

Published versions[edit]

The test is currently in its fourth edition.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mary E. Bonner Johnson, Appellant, v. Richard W. Woodcock, Appellee
  2. ^ Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Phyllis Anne Teeter Ellison (2009). Child Neuropsychology: Assessment and Interventions for Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Springer. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-387-88962-7. 
  3. ^ Hale, James B.; Catherine A. Fiorello (2004). School Neuropsychology: A Practitioner's Handbook. Guilford. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-59385-011-1. 
  4. ^ a b Schrank, F.A. (2006). Specification of the cognitive processes involved in performance on the Woodcock-Johnson III (Assessment service Bulletin No. 7). Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing. 
  5. ^ a b "Woodcock-Johnson III Normative Update (NU) Tests of Cognitive Abilities". Riverside Publishing. Retrieved 29 January 2013. 
  6. ^ a b Taub, Gordon E.; Keith, Timothy Z.; Floyd, Randy G.; Mcgrew, Kevin S. "Effects of general and broad cognitive abilities on mathematics achievement.". School Psychology Quarterly 23 (2): 187–198. doi:10.1037/1045-3830.23.2.187. 
  7. ^ "WJ IV™". Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Retrieved 2016-01-26. 
  8. ^ Schrank, Fredrick A. (2010). "Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities" (PDF). iapsych. Handbook of Pediatric Neuropsychology. 
  9. ^ McGrew, Dr. Kevin. "The New WJ IV Battery: Introduction and Overview" (PDF). conference.esc13. Institute for Applied Psychometrics. 
  10. ^ Schrank, Fredrick A.; Nancy Mather; Kevin S. McGrew (2014). Woodcock–Johnson IV Tests of Cognitive Abilities Examiner's Manual, Standard and Extended Batteries. Itasca: Riverside. 

Further reading[edit]